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- ItemA cnidarian phylogenomic tree fitted with hundreds of 18S leaves(bioRxiv, 2022-10-05) DeBiasse, Melissa; Buckenmeyer, Ariane; Macrander, Jason; Babonis, Leslie S.; Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Prada, Carlos; Reitzel, Adam M.; Stampar, Sergio N.; Collins, Allen G.; Daly, Marymegan; Ryan, Joseph F.Cnidarians are critical members of aquatic communities and have been an experimental system for a diversity of research areas ranging from development to biomechanics to global change biology. Yet we still lack a well-resolved, taxonomically balanced, cnidarian tree of life to place this research in appropriate phylogenetic context. To move towards this goal, we combined data from 26 new anthozoan transcriptomes with 86 previously published cnidarian and outgroup datasets to generate two 748-locus alignments containing 123,051 (trimmed) and 449,935 (untrimmed) amino acids. We estimated maximum likelihood phylogenies for both matrices under partitioned and unpartitioned site-homogeneous and site-heterogenous models of substitution. We used the resulting topology to constrain a phylogenetic analysis of 1,814 small subunit ribosomal (18S) gene sequences from GenBank. Our results confirm the position of Ceriantharia (tube-dwelling anemones), a historically recalcitrant group, as sister to the rest of Hexacorallia across all phylogenies regardless of data matrix or model choice. We also find unanimous support for the sister relationship of Endocnidozoa and Medusozoa and propose the name Operculozoa for the clade uniting these taxa. Our 18S hybrid phylogeny provides insight into relationships of 15% of extant taxa. Together these data are an invaluable resource for comparative cnidarian research and provide perspective to guide future refinement of cnidarian systematics.
- ItemAcute increase of α-synuclein inhibits synaptic vesicle recycling evoked during intense stimulation(Molecular Biology of the Cell (MBoC), 2014-10) Busch, David J.; Oliphint, Paul A.; Walsh, Rylie B.; Banks, Susan M. L.; Woods, Wendy S.; George, Julia M.; Morgan, Jennifer R.Parkinson's disease is associated with multiplication of the α-synuclein gene and abnormal accumulation of the protein. In animal models, α-synuclein overexpression broadly impairs synaptic vesicle trafficking. However, the exact steps of the vesicle trafficking pathway affected by excess α-synuclein and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore we acutely increased synuclein levels at a vertebrate synapse and performed a detailed ultrastructural analysis of the effects on presynaptic membranes. At stimulated synapses (20 Hz), excess synuclein caused a loss of synaptic vesicles and an expansion of the plasma membrane, indicating an impairment of vesicle recycling. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of synuclein, which folds into an α-helix, was sufficient to reproduce these effects. In contrast, α-synuclein mutants with a disrupted N-terminal α-helix (T6K and A30P) had little effect under identical conditions. Further supporting this model, another α-synuclein mutant (A53T) with a properly folded NTD phenocopied the synaptic vesicle recycling defects observed with wild type. Interestingly, the vesicle recycling defects were not observed when the stimulation frequency was reduced (5 Hz). Thus excess α-synuclein impairs synaptic vesicle recycling evoked during intense stimulation via a mechanism that requires a properly folded N-terminal α-helix.
- ItemAllogrooming in Male-Female Pairs of Captive Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymaae)(Folia Primatologica (Basel), 2017) Wolovich, Christy K.; Tapanes, Elizabeth; Evans, SianOwl monkeys (Aotus spp.) are socially monogamous, yet allogrooming is reported to be rare. Because Aotus are nocturnal and arboreal, allogrooming is difficult to observe in natural settings. We observed 21 male-female pairs of captive Aotus nancymaae during 2 nonconsecutive study periods in order to describe the details of allogrooming between mates (partner grooming). We found that grooming bouts are brief and consist of tugging the hair or skin with flexed fingers and/or the mouth. Males groomed females most often, and their rates of partner grooming were negatively related to age. Partner grooming occurred regardless of mating behavior. Camera trap data revealed that the rate of partner grooming (1.50 bouts/h) is greater than that recorded from our direct observations in the early evenings (0.51 bouts/h, in 2013; 0.37 bouts/h in 2003) given that most bouts occurred later in the night. A positive relationship between the rates of the parents' partner grooming and those of their offspring later in life suggests intergenerational transmission. This relationship is influenced by the fathers' rates of partner grooming. We conclude that allogrooming in Aotus is a normal part of their behavioral repertoire that likely serves social functions similar to those in other pair-bonded primates.
- ItemAncient and recent duplications support functional diversity of Daphnia opsins(Springer, 2017-01) Brandon, Christopher S.; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Dudycha, Jeffry L.Daphnia pulex has the largest known family of opsins, genes critical for photoreception and vision in animals. This diversity may be functionally redundant, arising from recent processes, or ancient duplications may have been preserved due to distinct functions and independent contributions to fitness. We analyzed opsins in D. pulex and its distant congener Daphnia magna. We identified [...] Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT 2017 Springer
- ItemAuxilin is essential for Delta signaling(Company Of Biologists Limited, 2008-03) Eun, Suk Ho; Banks, Susan M. L.; Fischer, Janice A.Endocytosis regulates Notch signaling in both signaling and receiving cells. A puzzling observation is that endocytosis of transmembrane ligand by the signaling cells is required for Notch activation in adjacent receiving cells. A key to understanding why signaling depends on ligand endocytosis lies in identifying and understanding the functions of crucial endocytic proteins. One such protein is Epsin, an endocytic factor first identified in vertebrate cells. Here, we show in Drosophila that Auxilin, an endocytic factor that regulates Clathrin dynamics, is also essential for [...]
- ItemThe Birth and Death of Toxins with Distinct Functions: A Case Study in the Sea Anemone Nematostella(Oxford University Press, 2019-09) Sachkova, Maria Y.; Singer, Shir A.; Macrander, Jason; Reitzel, Adam M.; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Moran, YehuThe cnidarian Nematostella vectensis has become an established lab model, providing unique opportunities for venom evolution research. The Nematostella venom system is multimodal: involving both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells, which produce a toxin mixture whose composition changes throughout the life cycle. Additionally, their modes of interaction with predators and prey vary between eggs, larvae, and adults, which is likely shaped by the dynamics of the venom system. Nv1 is a major component of adult venom, with activity against arthropods (through specific inhibition of sodium channel inactivation) and fish. Nv1 is encoded by a cluster of at least 12 nearly identical genes that were proposed to be undergoing concerted evolution. Surprisingly, we found that Nematostella venom includes several Nv1 paralogs escaping a pattern of general concerted evolution, despite belonging to the Nv1-like family. Here, we show two of these new toxins, Nv4 and Nv5, are lethal for zebrafish larvae but harmless to arthropods, unlike Nv1. Furthermore, unlike Nv1, the newly identified toxins are expressed in early life stages. Using transgenesis and immunostaining, we demonstrate that Nv4 and Nv5 are localized to ectodermal gland cells in larvae. The evolution of Nv4 and Nv5 can be described either as neofunctionalization or as subfunctionalization. Additionally, the Nv1-like family includes several pseudogenes being an example of nonfunctionalization and venom evolution through birth-and-death mechanism. Our findings reveal the evolutionary history for a toxin radiation and point toward the ecological function of the novel toxins constituting a complex cnidarian venom. (© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.)
- ItemCaribbean king crab larvae and juveniles show tolerance to ocean acidification and ocean warming(Marine Biology, 2022-05) Gravinese, Philip M.; Perry, Shelby A.; Spadaro, Angelo Jason; Boyd, Albert E.; Enochs, Ian C.Coastal habitats are experiencing decreases in seawater pH and increases in temperature due to anthropogenic climate change. The Caribbean king crab, Maguimithrax spinosissimus, plays a vital role on Western Atlantic reefs by grazing macroalgae that competes for space with coral recruits. Therefore, identifying its tolerance to anthropogenic stressors is critically needed if this species is to be considered as a potential restoration management strategy in coral reef environments. We examined the effects of temperature (control: 28 °C and elevated: 31 °C) and pH (control: 8.0 and reduced pH: 7.7) on the king crab’s larval and early juvenile survival, molt-stage duration, and morphology in a fully crossed laboratory experiment. Survival to the megalopal stage was reduced (13.5% lower) in the combined reduced pH and elevated temperature treatment relative to the control. First-stage (J1) juveniles delayed molting by 1.5 days in the reduced pH treatment, while second-stage (J2) crabs molted 3 days earlier when exposed to elevated temperature. Juvenile morphology did not differ among treatments. These results suggests that juvenile king crabs are tolerant to changes associated with climate change. Given the important role of the king crab as a grazer of macroalgae, its tolerance to climate stressors suggests that it could benefit restoration efforts aimed at making coral reefs more resilient to increasingly warm and acidic oceans into the future. © 2022, This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply.
- ItemChaperone proteins as ameliorators of α-synuclein-induced synaptic pathologies: Insights into Parkinson's disease(Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications, 2021-06) Banks, Susan M. L.; Medeiros, Audrey T.; Sousa, Rui; Lafer, Eileen M.; Morgan, Jennifer R.Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies, impact the lives of millions of patients and their caregivers. Synucleinopathies include PD, dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy, and several Alzheimer’s Disease variants. They are clinically characterized by intracellular inclusions called Lewy Bodies, which are rich in atypical aggregates of the protein α-synuclein. While dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra are particularly susceptible to α-synuclein-induced aggregation and neurodegeneration, glutamatergic neurons in other brain regions (e.g. cortex) are also frequently affected in PD and other synucleinopathies (Schulz-Schaeffer 2010). Several point mutations in the α-synuclein gene (SNCA), as well as duplication/triplication of SNCA, are linked to familial Parkinson’s disease.
- ItemClimate Change Will Fragment Florida Stone Crab Communities(Sec. Global Change and the Future Ocean, 2022-07) Alaerts, Lauranne; Dobbelaere, Thomas; Gravinese, Philip M.; Hanert, EmmanuelMany marine species have been shown to be threatened by both ocean acidification and ocean warming which are reducing survival, altering behavior, and posing limits on physiology, especially during earlier life stages. The commercially important Florida stone crab, Menippe mercenaria, is one species that is affected by reduced seawater pH and elevated seawater temperatures. In this study, we determined the impacts of reduced pH and elevated temperature on the distribution of the stone crab larvae along the West Florida Shelf. To understand the dispersion of the larvae, we coupled the multi-scale ocean model SLIM with a larval dispersal model. We then conducted a connectivity study and evaluated the impacts of climate stressors by looking at four different scenarios which included models that represented the dispersion of stone crab larvae under: 1) present day conditions as modelled by SLIM for the temperature and NEMO-PISCES for the pH, 2) SSP1-2.6 scenario (-0.037 reduction in pH and +0.5°C compared to present-day conditions), 3) SSP2-4.5 scenario(-0.15 reduction in pH and +1.5°C) and 4) SSP5-8.5 scenario (-0.375 reduction in pH and +3.5°C). Our results show a clear impact of these climate change stressors on larval dispersal and on the subsequent stone crab distribution. Our results indicate that future climate change could result in stone crabs moving north or into deeper waters. We also observed an increase in the number of larvae settling in deeper waters (defined as the non-fishing zone in this study with depths exceeding 30 m) that are not typically part of the commercial fishing zone. The distance travelled by larvae, however, is likely to decrease, resulting in an increase of self-recruitment and decrease of the size of the sub-populations. A shift of the spawning period, to earlier in the spring, is also likely to occur. Our results suggest that habitats in the non-fishing zone cannot serve as a significant source of larvae for the habitats in the fishing zone (defined as water depth< 30 m) since there is very little exchange (< 5% of all exchanges) between the two zones. These results indicate that the stone crab populations in Florida may be susceptible to community fragmentation and that the management of the fishery should consider the potential impacts of future climate change scenarios.
- ItemCo-Occurrence of Haematoloechus complexus and Rhabdias joaquinensis in the Plains Leopard Frog from Nebraska(Allen Press, 2013) Langford, Gabriel J.; Vhora, M. Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G.; Janovy, John Jr.Species of Haematoloechus and Rhabdias both are ubiquitous lung parasites of frogs, yet surprisingly little research has been conducted on the interactions between these worms. In a small Nebraska stream, 256 Rhabdias joaquinensis and 225 Haematoloechus complexus were found in the lungs of Lithobates (=Rana) blairi. Thirty-six of the 44 (82%) frogs were co-infected with H. complexus and R. joaquinensis whereas 5 (11%) frogs were infected with only 1 species and 3 (7%) frogs were uninfected. Tests for association between H. complexus and R. joaquinensis found a significant positive relationship between the 2 parasites. Significant positive relationships in intensity of infection were found when both lungs were combined but not when lungs were considered individually. Tests for association between H. complexus and R. joaquinensis found no relationship between the worms in the anterior and posterior portions of the lungs. These data suggest that H. complexus and R. joaquinensis do not competitively exclude each other from the lungs of L. blairi in southeastern Nebraska.
- ItemDO pH-VARIABLE HABITATS PROVIDE REFUGE FOR STONE CRABS FROM COASTAL ACIDIFICATION?(Oceanography, 2023-03) Gravinese, Philip M.; Smith, Abigail L. (Florida Southern College Student); Stewart, Samantha M.; Paradis, JudyThis guided, inquiry-based, hands-on lesson uses data from a local monitoring station in Tampa Bay, Florida, to guide students toward understanding how coastal acidification may impact the reproductive success of the Florida stone crab, an important regional fishery. The objectives of the lesson are for students to: (1) determine how pH varies between different habitats, (2) determine how pH can affect the reproductive success of an important commercial fishery, the Florida stone crab, and (3) evaluate whether exposure to variable seawater pH results in greater reproductive success in stone crabs relative to individuals that are not exposed to pH variability.
- ItemDominant toxin hypothesis: unravelling the venom phenotype across micro and macroevolution(bioRxiv, 2022-06-26) Smith, Edward G.; Surm, Joachim M.; Macrander, Jason; Simhi, Adi; Amir, Guy; Sachkova, Maria Y.; Lewandowska, Magda; Reitzel, Adam M.; Moran, YehuVenom is a complex trait with substantial inter- and intraspecific variability resulting from strong selective pressures acting on the expression of many toxic proteins. However, understanding the processes underlying the toxin expression dynamics that determine the venom phenotype remains unresolved. Here, we use comparative genomics and transcriptomics to reveal that toxin expression in sea anemones evolves rapidly with little constraint and that a single toxin family dictates the venom phenotype in each species. This dominant toxin family is characterized by massive gene duplication events. In-depth analysis of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, revealed significant variation in the number of copies of the dominant toxin (Nv1) across populations, corresponding to significant differences in Nv1 expression at both the transcript and protein levels. These differences in Nv1 copies are driven by independent expansion events, resulting in distinct haplotypes that have a restricted geographical distribution. Strikingly, one population has undergone a severe contraction event, causing a near-complete loss of Nv1 production. Our findings across micro- and macroevolutionary scales in sea anemones complement observations of single dominant toxin family present in other venomous organisms and establishes the dominant toxin hypothesis whereby venomous animals have convergently evolved a similar strategy in shaping the venom phenotype.
- ItemDrosophila klaroid encodes a SUN domain protein required for Klarsicht localization to the nuclear envelope and nuclear migration in the eye(Taylor & Francis, 2007-04) Kracklauer, Martin P.; Banks, Susan M. L.; Xie, Xuanhua; Wu, Yaning; Fischer, Janice A.KASH (Klarsicht/Anc-1/Syne homology) domain proteins are cytoskeleton-associated proteins localized uniquely to the outer nuclear membrane. Klarsicht is a KASH protein required for nuclear migration in differentiating cells of the Drosophila eye. The C-terminal KASH domain of Klarsicht resides in the perinuclear space, and the cytoplasmic moiety connects to the microtubule organizing center. In C. elegans and vertebrate cells, SUN (Sad1/UNC-84) domain proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and tether KASH proteins to the outer nuclear membrane. Is there a Drosophila SUN protein that performs a similar function, and if so, is it like Klarsicht, obviously essential for [...]
- ItemEcological constraints on sensory systems: compound eye size in Daphnia is reduced by resource limitation(Springer, 2014-08) Brandon, Christopher S.; Dudycha, Jeffry L.Eye size is an indicator of visual capability, and macroevolutionary patterns reveal that taxa inhabiting dim environments have larger eyes than taxa from bright environments. This suggests that the light environment is a key driver of variation in eye size. Yet other factors not directly linked with visual tasks (i.e., non-sensory factors) may influence eye size. We sought to jointly investigate the roles of sensory (light) and non-sensory factors (food) in determining eye size and ask whether non-sensory factors could constrain visual capabilities. We tested environmental influences on eye size in four species of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, crossing bright and dim light levels with high and low resource levels. We measured absolute eye size and eye size relative to body size in early and late adulthood. In general, Daphnia reared on low resources had smaller eyes, both absolutely and relatively. In contrast to the dominant macroevolutionary pattern, phenotypic plasticity in response to light was rarely significant. These patterns of phenotypic plasticity were true for overall diameter of the eye and the diameter of individual facets. We conclude that non-sensory environmental factors can influence sensory systems, and in particular, that resource availability may be an important constraint on visual capability.
- ItemEcological factors responsible for the geographic distribution of Rhabdias joaquinensis: where do lungworms infect anurans in nature?(Allen Press, 2016-03) Langford, Gabriel J.; Janovy, John Jr.The lungworm Rhabdias joaquinensis (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is a common parasite of anurans in eastern Nebraska, yet absent from the same hosts in western Nebraska. This study investigated the ecology of the lungworm’s free-living stages that reside in host feces and surrounding soils to establish the worm’s free-living niche in eastern Nebraska. Using a comparative method, this study also investigated the absence of lungworms in western Nebraska’s Sandhills. Soil composition, moisture, and temperature were experimentally varied in the laboratory to assess their effects on juvenile development and survival. Field mesocosm and host defecation experiments were used to determine where in nature lungworms survive and eventually infect frogs and toads and to discover if vegetation facilitates lungworm transmission to hosts. The results found loam soils were amenable to lungworm development, whereas soils with high clay or sand content produced few infective lungworms. Soil moisture <50 % did not support lungworm development. Infective juveniles successfully developed between 5 and 35 °C, albeit at different rates, whereas only a limited number of non-infective worms developed at 40 °C. Field studies found that shoreline environments supported lungworm development, and the majority of lungworm infections appear to occur within a zone of infection adjacent to shorelines in eastern Nebraska. The prevalence in vegetation mesocosms was 100 %, and a significantly higher mean abundance was found in toads from containers with vegetation than without. Overall, these experiments suggest that the spatial distribution of R. joaquinensis in Nebraska is constrained by the worm’s ability to survive and reproduce in a soil matrix.
- ItemEcological factors responsible for the geographic distribution of Rhabdias joaquinensis: where do lungworms infect anurans in nature?(Parasitology Research, 2016-03) Langford, Gabriel J.; Janovy, John Jr.;The lungworm Rhabdias joaquinensis (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is a common parasite of anurans in eastern Nebraska, yet absent from the same hosts in western Nebraska. This study investigated the ecology of the lungworm’s free-living stages that reside in host feces and surrounding soils to establish the worm’s free-living niche in eastern Nebraska. Using a comparative method, this study also investigated the absence of lungworms in western Nebraska’s Sandhills. Soil composition, moisture, and temperature were experimentally varied in the laboratory to assess their effects on juvenile development and survival. Field mesocosm and host defecation experiments were used to determine where in nature lungworms survive and eventually infect frogs and toads and to discover if vegetation facilitates lungworm transmission to hosts. The results found loam soils were amenable to lungworm development, whereas soils with high clay or sand content produced few infective lungworms. Soil moisture <50 % did not support lungworm development. Infective juveniles successfully developed between 5 and 35 °C, albeit at different rates, whereas only a limited number of non-infective worms developed at 40 °C. Field studies found that shoreline environments supported lungworm development, and the majority of lungworm infections appear to occur within a zone of infection adjacent to shorelines in eastern Nebraska. The prevalence in vegetation mesocosms was 100 %, and a significantly higher mean abundance was found in toads from containers with vegetation than without. Overall, these experiments suggest that the spatial distribution of R. joaquinensis in Nebraska is constrained by the worm’s ability to survive and reproduce in a soil matrix.
- ItemEcology of the Eastern Ribbonsnake (Thamnophis sauritus) in southern Alabama with evidence of seasonal multiple broods(Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 2011-12) Langford, Gabriel J.; Borden, Joel A.; Nelson, David H.Studies are lacking on the ecology of the Eastern Ribbonsnake (Thamnophis sauritus), especially in the southern United States. We describe some aspects of the sexual dimorphism, sex ratio, feeding habits, reproductive biology, and seasonal activity of the Eastern Ribbonsnake in a southern Alabama Tupelo-Gum swamp from 2003-2005. We captured 339 Eastern Ribbonsnakes 379 times; females were significantly longer than males, but males had longer tails. Snakes were active year-round, and the longest straight-line distance travelled by any snake was 1,050 m. Snakes consumed only frogs (Hyla spp. and Lithobates spp.); a shift occurred when juveniles switched from feeding on tadpoles to adult frogs. We found females had an extended reproductive season, producing broods April-October. Two females double brooded during the 2004 reproductive season, with 99 and 118 days between broods. The average brood size for Eastern Ribbonsnakes from six females that produced eight broods was 14 ± 3.18 (range 9-19). A reduction in brood size occurred in both females that produced multiple broods, but no decrease in neonate snout-vent length was detected between broods. Overall, our study provides needed natural history data from a southern location and the first evidence for multiple broods in a wild, temperate snake.
- ItemEffect of density and extra dung on brood parasitism in the dung beetle, Onthophagus Taurus(Springer US, 2013-03) Crowe, Mary L.; Raspet, Erin; Rychtář, Jan; Gupta, SatKleptoparasitism has not been well documented in insects and intraspecific brood parasitism is even less well known. This study examines the effect of extra resources and density on the probability of kleptoparasitism in the bull headed dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. A high level (>60 %) of kleptoparasitism was found across all treatments and suggest that although density may not affect the probability to kleptoparasitize, it may influence brood ball production. This study also documents for the first time that male O. taurus kleptoparasitize.
- ItemElucidating the life history and ecological aspects of Allodero hylae (Annelida: Clitellata: Naididae), a parasitic oligochaete of invasive Cuban tree frogs in Florida(Allen Press, 2015) Andrews, Jessee M.; Childress, Jasmine N.; Iakovidis, Triantafilos J.; Langford, Gabriel J.Given their ubiquitous nature, it is surprising that more oligochaete annelid worms (Annelida: Clitellata) have not adopted an endoparasitic lifestyle. Exceptions, however, are the understudied members of the genus Dero (Allodero) that parasitize the ureters of tree frogs and toads. This study experimentally explores the life cycle and host specificity of Allodero hylae, the worm's use of chemical cues in host searching, and its seasonal prevalence and abundance over a year-long collection period on the Florida Southern College campus. A total of 2,005 A. hylae was collected from the ureter, urinary bladder, or expressed urine of wild Osteopilus septentrionalis; a significant positive correlation was found between host snout–vent length and parasite intensity for female but not male hosts. Monthly prevalence of A. hylae reached a peak of 58% in April, but never dropped below 20% in any month; mean abundance peaked March–May, whereas few worms were recovered in December and January. Confirming a parasitic lifestyle, wild-collected hosts with intense infections, typically >40 worms, showed obvious dilatation of the ureter wall, and some young-of-the-year O. septentrionalis exposed to A. hylae in the laboratory were killed by the apparent rupture of the host's ureter. The worm has a direct life cycle: worms expelled in the host's urine are capable of locating and re-infecting other hosts within aquatic microhabitats such as bromeliad tanks, and worms can survive for weeks in a free-living environment, even undergoing a morphological change. Further, chemotaxis assays found a positive response to a tree frog attractant for worms recently removed from hosts. Overall, this study provides the first multifaceted investigation on the life history and ecology of any Allodero spp., which offers new insights into an understudied endoparasitic oligochaete.
- ItemEphemeral hypoxia reduces oxygen consumption in the Caribbean coral Orbicella faveolata(Coral Reefs, 2022-02) Gravinese, Philip M.; Douwes, Alex; Eaton, Katherine R.; Muller, Erinn M.Oxygen concentrations in coastal waters have declined globally by 10% since the mid-twentieth century, and ocean warming will further reduce the solubility of oxygen in coastal habitats. Some nearshore reefs experience periodic hypoxic conditions due to eutrophication, especially during the wet season. Here, we determined the combined impacts of hypoxia and elevated temperature on the reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata, by exposing corals to normoxic or hypoxic conditions and ambient or elevated temperatures. Oxygen consumption was monitored using closed-system respirometry. Corals within hypoxic conditions consumed 34% less oxygen relative to corals in normoxic conditions. Corals in the elevated temperature normoxic treatment experienced a 10% increase in oxygen consumption relative to the control. Corals exposed to both stressors simultaneously experienced a 62% reduction in oxygen consumption. These results suggest that increased temperature may exacerbate the negative effects of hypoxia on O. faveolata. © 2021, This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply.