ItemNutrition Knowledge and Dietary Quality in Female Collegiate Cross Country Runners(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Goll, Alayna; Terrell, Sara LynnHigh dietary quality is important for athletic populations because it may reduce nutritional deficiencies. Female cross country runners are often at risk for deficiencies in key nutrients, such as iron and calcium. Athletes’ nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence their selection of higher quality foods. However, an assessment of nutrition knowledge and dietary practices in female collegiate cross country runners remains unknown. Purpose: To explore and assess sports nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior in collegiate female runners. Methods: Female cross country athletes (n=12) from Florida Southern College completed a 30-item sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire, testing their knowledge of the following: energy intake, macronutrients, and micronutrients. Participants then recorded their food intake for 3 non-consecutive days (within a 1-week time frame). Results were entered into an online dietary tracker, which sorted daily food intake into different nutrient categories. Trends observed within athletes’ nutrition knowledge and dietary habits were analyzed. Results: Results indicate athletes scored at an average (75%) level in sports nutrition competencies, with better understanding of macronutrients versus micronutrients. The food log analysis indicated the majority of runners’ diets were deficient in several key nutrients, especially calories, carbohydrates, and Vitamin D. Conclusions: Athletes minimally achieved the standard for adequate nutrition. Nutrient intake appeared low for most nutrients, regardless of knowledge. These nutrient deficits may impair performance and exacerbate injury risk. Future studies may explore educational interventions that facilitate better dietary practices in athletes. ItemOn the Difference Between Two Numbers Raised to the Same Power(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Hallmark, Nathan; Elsinger, Jason; Sullivan, SeanIn mathematics, systems are often complex, requiring great amounts of work to fully solve. To combat this, mathematicians often employ the strategy of imposing constraints on the system. This work uses this strategy in relation to the difference of two numbers raised to the same power. The two base numbers are given the constraint of only having a difference of one, leading to the formulas that describe the resulting patterns. One of the more popular topics that arise from this is the use of Pascal’s Triangle to highlight patterns among appearing binomial coefficients. The formulas resulting from this work can be applied to several topics in number theory problems, including the Pythagorean triples, sum of three cubes, and Mersenne Primes. In addition to preliminary applications, some of the pure mathematics needed to prove these formulas, including combinatorics and mathematical induction, are discussed. In order better visualize the work, Minecraft is used as a way to display the simplest cases. Finally, as an overarching theme, this research exemplifies what mathematicians can do with a single pattern and unquenchable curiosity. ItemAn Inquiry into the Synthesis of Zinc/Chelidonate-based MOFs and Their Potential Uses in the Prevention of Hernia Mesh Infections(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Vassalotti, Ryan; Eubank, Jarrod F.A hernia is one of the most common medical issues that occurs in the entire world, affecting millions of people yearly. As part of the surgery to repair a hernia, the physician will often insert a mesh material to prevent recurrence of the hernia. Despite their high efficacy in preventing recurrence of the hernia, these hernia meshes are unfortunately prone to infection. Hernia mesh infections affect thousands of people every year and cost the individuals large amounts of unnecessary time and money. The field of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has opened up a promising path towards solving this issue. The successful synthesis of antimicrobial MOFs and biocompatible MOFs demonstrates that there is merit in pursuing biomedical applications. With the help of antimicrobial materials like MOFs it may be possible to prevent these postoperative infections. Synthesis of a Zn-based analogue to a previously characterized antimicrobial Cu-basedMOF, me137, was successful. The results of this study indicate that control of both morphology and structure in Zn-based MOFs is possible. Additionally, the Zn-based MOFs appear to be more chemically stable than similar Cu-based MOFs. Antimicrobial assays have demonstrated that the Zn-based MOFs are capable of inhibiting the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. Early adhesion tests have shown that growth of Compound 1 (RV22) onto unmodified polypropylene is not an interaction that readily occurs. Thus, methods for modifying polypropylene to take on a form more conducive to MOF adhesion was investigated. A method for oxidizing polypropylene with the use of KMnO4, NaOH, and heat was found to be successful, but adhesion of Compound 1 onto the oxidized polypropylene has not yet been achieved. ItemDestruction of Cultural Sites: A Historical Analysis(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Lassiter, Lauren; Caney, AnnaCulture is defined as the customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular notion, people, or other social group. The culture of a society is often regarded by its members as their most prized possession and their greatest asset. However, because of their importance, destruction of cultural sites has become a common weapon of war. Through historical analysis and three-dimensional printing, I examine the destruction of cultural and historical sites in Europe and the Middle East to explore the motives behind the actions of the destroyers, as well as the history that is now lost. Additionally, I analyze possible policy actions that can combat this exponentially growing trend of war. ItemWhat is the relationship between pitch count, strength, and pain for Division II collegiate softball pitchers?(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Dewith, Jadin; Terrell, Sara LynnCollegiate fastpitch softball pitchers utilize an underhand pitching technique which creates high shoulder stress. Injury prevention measures, such as pitch counts, are missing in softball. Higher pitch counts may reduce strength, increase pain, inhibit proper mechanics, and contribute to higher injury risk. Yet, there is a paucity of research exploring monitoring intervention measures within Division II softball pitchers. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in isometric strength, pitch count, self-reported pain, and open and closed kinetic chain functional test performance in Division II softball pitchers at three time points: off-season, pre-season, and in season. Early monitoring strategies indicated reductions in pitching side isometric strength in key muscles that support pitching technique from off-season to pre-season measurements, but in season measurements did not continue this decline. Athletes improved performance in three functional tests but demonstrated reduced muscle endurance of the posterior chain from off-season to pre-season. These patterns continued to be seen during the competitive season. ItemQuantifying the “Golden Ratio” of Hyper-Palatable Foods: What Makes Junk Food So Addictive?(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Schabes, Madeleine; Le, An-PhongThe rising popularity of hyper-palatable foods is motivating research on what makes a food addictive. The current research focuses on neurological and psychological explanations, not on the foods’ physical makeup. It is suggested that food companies strategize the ratio of salts, sugars, and fats to overcome a person’s natural eating regulation, or sensory-specific satiety (SSS.) This strategy is referred to as the “golden ratio” or “bliss point” but has never been quantified. The study will compare popular and unpopular potato chips as determined by purchasing trends and rankings. For this investigation, the salt, sugar, and fat content was measured through analyzing chloride, dextrose, sucrose, fructose, lactose, and solid fat content. Subsequent statistical analyses will find if different ratios exist between popular and unpopular potato chips. If a common ratio is found, it could aid in ingredient reduction without affecting palatability. This can be a major cost-saving measure for the food industry, and it could make foods healthier for people with conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. ItemThe Economic Impact of COVID-19 Cases on US States(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Bligh, Connor; Connors, Joseph S.This paper aims to provide an in-depth study on the economic impact of COVID-19 lockdowns on specific US states, which has not been completed to this specificity yet. Economic impact studies are used to help make both local and state policy decisions. These policy decisions are vitally important to ensure future pandemics can be effectively handled. This paper will include data about several economic and health statistics for each state in the hopes that it will help shape public policy for pandemics in the foreseeable future. ItemThe Design and Construction of an Affordable Raman Spectrometer(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Baxmann, Alivia; Le, An-PhongRaman spectroscopy is capable of identifying unknown substances in a fast and nondestructive manner and has found a wide range of uses, such as identifying hydrogen peroxidebased explosives, characterizing chocolate, and verifying gemstone identity. Commercial Raman spectrometers can easily cost tens of thousands of dollars and building a low cost version would enable more widespread adoption of this technique and make additional analytical applications feasible. Undergrad chemistry courses leave out how an instrument works in favor of teaching how to interpret the results unless special topics classes are offered. In industry, chemists are expected to do general maintenance and troubleshooting on all instruments present in the lab. Giving students the opportunity to handle equipment prior to a business setting allows for increased confidence. The basic parts have been assembled with the aid of a 3D printer. Preliminary results will be discussed as well as possible future uses of the project. ItemPolitics in the Lone Star State: How Have They Changed and Why?(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Davis, Jessica; Anderson, R. BruceThe political spectrum, throughout American history, has always been fluid - never concrete; though most people in their respective parties share common core beliefs, they do not all entirely agree. Therefore, it is fair to say that the same goes for divisions between parties within the states. Both Democrats and Republicans have different beliefs once one crosses state borders. Not only this, but political issues are also changing with time and altered demographics. It can be seen within each individual state that not only are some people changing how they vote, but new voters are constantly entering the fray, sometimes upsetting what had been a relatively solid balance. There are also voters who may not have been regulars at the polls, who are attracted to vote on issues that affect them. Taking the 2020 election as an example, many states have changed the way that they have voted in recent years. One of the most prominent exemplars of this is the political alignment (or realignment) in Texas. Texas has typically been described as a solidly conservative – and therefore Republican state. Though Texas may have been won by the Republican party as was expected, it can also be seen through voting numbers that a solid rightwing vote may not always be the case. This analysis will be addressing the shifts in voting patterns of both existing and new voters, and the reasons for why this seemingly strong conservative state may be taking strides towards the left. ItemTraces of Hellenism and Perpetual Hope: Religious Faith in Greek American Return Narratives(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Robinson, Corinna; Moffitt, Jennifer LeighDuring the 1960s, Greek American writers were particularly interested in exploring their cultural heritage, leading many to produce “return narratives,” stories of a return to their ethnic, pre-American homeland. These narratives often emphasize religious faith, insisting upon its centrality to Greek identity. My project focuses on the roles of Orthodox Christianity and Hellenic polytheism within two such return narratives: Daphne Athas’s Greece by Prejudice (1963) and Elias Kulukundis’s The Feasts of Memory (1967). Athas and Kulukundis return to Greece within distinct contexts and experience religion in contrasting ways, but both authors ultimately suggest that by reconciling Greece’s hybrid religious landscape, they are in turn able to reconcile their hybrid cultural backgrounds. ItemSexism, Harassment, & Attraction: Studying the Effects of Various Factors on Workplace Discrimination(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Wilkens, Jack; Goodmon, Leilani B.Much of the previously conducted research puts a focus on the effects of sexual harassment on the target of sexual harassment as a result of the harassment itself, or on the effects of the perceptions of the accused individual. This study aims to assess how making an accusation affects how one’s co-workers perceive the accuser. A study by Dunn and Cody (2000) hinted that a negative reputation can follow the accusation of sexual harassment, so it has been predicted that the presence of a sexual harassment accusation will lead to a lower score on the dependent variables of trustworthiness, likeability, promotability, and competence when it comes to the perceptions from the accuser’s coworkers on the accuser. This effect was predicted to be amplified when the accuser is a male, based on prior research indicating that males are generally perceived as more trustworthy, likeably, promotable, and competent within the workplace (McGloin & Denes, 2001; Sloan, 2012). The attractiveness of the focal character (who would be the accuser in the scenarios when there is an accusation made) was also predicted to influence the perceptions of the focal character’s coworkers; Golden, Johnson, and Lopez (2001) conducted research which suggested that more attractive sexual harassment targets are often believed more than their less attractive counterparts. Overall, the past literature points to an influence of the presence of a sexual harassment accusation, gender, and attractiveness each having an effect on how one is perceived by their co-workers, so this research investigates further how these three independent variables cross each other. Ultimately, there was no main effect of any of the independent variables found on any of the dependent variables, contradicting each of the proposed hypotheses. A variety of external factors may have influenced these results, leading to this inconsistency with previously published literature. ItemFunctional or Just Plain Pretty? A Reevaluation of Bacterial Pigment Activity(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Lake, Meaghan; Morvillo, NancySerratia marcescens and Chromobacterium violaceum are both gram-negative opportunistic pathogenetic bacteria that produce the pigments prodigiosin and violacein, respectively. These secondary metabolites have been demonstrated to act as antibiotic compounds effective against pathogenic bacteria, which could be of future therapeutic importance. In this study, the pigments were purified environmental samples of S. marcescens and C. violaceum previously identified as antibiotic producers. These pigments were tested for antibiotic activity under three conditions: individually, together, and in combination with the antibiotic neomycin. No antibiotic activity or enhancement of neomycin was seen in either pigment. Efforts to reactivate the antibiotic production included altering the growth conditions for S. marcescens and C. violaceum and challenging these bacteria with other competing bacterial species. While pigment production was robust, antibiotic activity was not restored. These results demonstrate that the pigment alone does not induce bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties, indicating other cofactors may play a role in antibiotic production within the bacteria. ItemDoes the presence of novel vs. familiar companions affect the social buffering response in Danio rerio?(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Burnette, Stephanie; Bowers-Macrander, Ashley; Durland Donahou, Allison L.Social buffering is a phenomenon observed in social animals where the presence of a member from the same species alleviates the stress response by reducing the amount of stress an animal experiences, helping them to recover faster. Social buffering has been observed across vertebrate taxa, from primates, to birds, to fish. Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are a shoaling species –group living fish that form social bonds with other members. To test how familiarity within a group plays a role in social buffering, I exposed 18 zebrafish to a stressor in three treatments: 1) in pairs of new companions; 2) individually; and 3) in pairs where the fish are familiar with each other. After administering the stressor, chasing with a net, I observed the behavior of the fish for 20 minutes and scored four stress-related behaviors: erratic swimming, freezing, reduced exploration, and shoaling cohesion. The isolation treatment exhibited increased erratic movements and overall activity. The novel and familiar treatments did not significantly differ in any of the behaviors. The presence of conspecifics, whether or not they are familiar, seem to alleviate stress-related behaviors. ItemKnowledge of Factors Affecting Eyewitness Reliability(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Curran, Breanna; Quinlivan, Deah S.; Blankenship, ChastityResearch has consistently shown that there are contributing factors in the unfair outcome of the justice system, one of which is mistaken eyewitness identification. Eyewitnesses have proven to be unreliable, as seen in the vast amount of wrongful conviction cases. Knowledge of factors that may influence eyewitness identification is crucial in helping to minimize error. We are all connected to the justice system in a way, whether that is a family member in law enforcement, becoming a lawyer, taking part in a jury, etc. The current study tests for the knowledge of eyewitness factors using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 294 students across various academic disciplines at a small private southeastern college. Differences in knowledge between college majors, exposure to research, course history, and familial involvement in the criminal justice system were tested for. ItemAre You My Mother: Redefining Christian Ethics of Adoption Through the Neo-Confucian Concept of Qi(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Sill, Grace; Hamilton, Brian DavidAccording to Adoption Network, a U.S. adoption agency, nearly 1.5 million Americans are adopted, and 100 million Americans have an immediate family member who is adopted. Despite the prominent presence of adoption in society, Christian theology and jurisprudence has preserved the assumption that adoptive relationships are inherently inferior to biological relationships. Thomas Aquinas and Karl Barth, for example, legitimize adoption on the basis of economics or spiritual need, while suggesting that biological relationships are “natural” and need no justification. Contemporary research on Christian conceptions of adoption continues these trends. To redefine Western Christian perspectives of adoptive relationships, my research looks to the neo-Confucian philosopher Zhang Zai and his concept of qi, the vital energy or life force that permeates the universe. I argue that Zhang Zai’s philosophy of qi promotes a more holistic understanding of the relationships between things. Applied to adoptive relationships in particular, qi recognizes the economic and spiritual characteristics of adoptive relationships while also affirming their intrinsic value. Modern families have diverse compositions, and a Christian ethics grounded in God’s all-encompassing love must recognize the inherent value of adoptive relationships in theory and practice. ItemEffectiveness of the FIFA 11+ Warm-Up in Improving Lower Extremity Biomechanics and Change of Direction Performance(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Cagle, Erin; Allen, Charles R.The prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and the enhancement of sports performance are two common goals when working with athletes, and lower extremity biomechanics have been identified as modifiable factors for both. There is an abundance of research identifying the factors associated with ACL injury prevention and performance improvement, and there are various injury prevention programs (IPP) developed to correct faulty biomechanical movement patterns. While previous research has established the efficacy of these IPPs in reducing injury rates, it remains unclear if IPPs have positive effects on athletic performance. Specifically, there is little research that investigates the role of IPPs in improving the ability to perform a change of direction (COD) task. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an IPP could reduce the rate of injury and improve the performance of a COD task. Twelve Division II collegiate, female soccer players participated in this study (six treatment, six control), with COD time and biomechanics, Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) assessment, and vertical jump ground reaction forces (GRFs) measured pre and post-intervention. Results found that there was a main effect for time across multiple variables and changes in left knee valgus angle in the control group from pre to post were statistically significant (p=.034). For all other variables, there was no significance across intervention or the combination of intervention and time. Therefore, further studies with larger samples should be conducted to improve understanding of the topic. ItemAnalysis of Metal-Organic Framework Stability, Antimicrobial Properties, and Dental Applications(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Marusko, Benjamin; Eubank, Jarrod F.; Langford, Melanie L.The development of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), an analysis of their properties, and exploration of their potential biomedical applications, specifically dental, are areas of modern biochemical interest focus on through this study. Previous research has shown these frameworks (and/or their components) have the potential for antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesized that they may be used on dental implants to inhibit the growth of oral bacteria responsible for peri-implantitis. This project has consisted of the development and structural analysis of several different novel frameworks with a high potential for microbial inhibition. Through the incorporation of antimicrobial metal ions, bridging ligands, and possibly terminal ligands there is the potential for a synergistic antimicrobial effect greater than any of the individual components. Structural stability has been monitored under varying environmental conditions, such as humidity; changes have been recorded and analyzed for potential functional applications in biological conditions. A common characteristic of MOFs is the modularity of components, which could allow for the addition of drug compounds or ligands with higher antimicrobial effects for a stronger inhibition of bacterial growth. Key MOFs were selected for antimicrobial analysis through Kirby-Bauer inhibition tests on the common oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The frameworks presenting significant bacterial inhibition were then tested for the potential of growth directly onto the titanium implants used in a majority of oral surgeries. Our research project has resulted in novel MOFs with antimicrobial properties that can be further functionalized and grown directly onto titanium implants for the prevention of infection immediately post oral surgery. ItemConceal, Don’t Reveal: The Impact of LGBTQ+ College Students Hiding Their Identity(Florida Southern College, 2022-05) Freijo, Kira; Fowler, Melanie RyanA concealable stigmatized identity (CSI) is an identity that has been stigmatized historically, but is not immediately visible to others, and therefore can be concealed (Quinn & Earnshaw, 2013). Many people with CSIs are motivated to conceal their identity to avoid stigma, but this action is significantly associated with higher levels of depression and generalized anxiety, reduced positive affect, and increased negative affect (Feinstein et al., 2020; Mohr et al., 2019). College students are under a lot of stress in general (Saleh et al., 2017) and college students with CSIs experience additional stressors which can negatively affect their college experiences. This study sought to explore the relationship between concealment factors of LGBTQ+ college students and their academic performance and college involvement. Forty-four LGBTQ+ college students completed an anonymous survey regarding their level of outness, experience with discrimination, amount of internalized stigma, academic performance, and involvement at their college, among other things. This paper describes the discovered relationships between the aforementioned variables and reinforces the implementation of measures that will reduce stigma and provide campus support to LGBTQ+ college students.