ItemThe Senate, The South, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Hesse, GabriellaDo Southern Senators speak differently from Non-Southern Senators? This question aims to target an under-researched area in the field of Southern politics and to contribute to the debate on past and current Southern exceptionalism. This thesis is a content analysis of relevant speeches made in the US Senate surrounding the Voting Rights Act of 1965 regarding the use of rhetorical devices, call to action, and emotionality. ItemDisruptors(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Couch, JuliaThe film features the stories of Will Crum and Robyn Wilson, Lakeland locals who operate an organic farm. Titled "Disruptors", this film tells the story of two unique individuals who found not just one another, but a mutual affection for leading life outside the box. ItemEffects of Olfactory Enrichment on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymaae)(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Woerle, SamanthaThe purpose of environmental enrichment is to improve the well-being of captive animals. Types of environmental enrichment include, but are not limited to, the introduction of music, toys, and scents. Animals given such enrichment often exhibit a reduction in stereotypic behaviors (e.g., pacing and self-scratching), which are often linked to elevated stress. Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are nocturnal, monogamous primates. In captivity, some owl monkeys exhibit repetitive flipping, pacing, and scratching. Despite reliance on chemical communication and use of olfactory cues in foraging and social interactions, their responses to olfactory enrichment have not been investigated. We examined the effects of olfactory enrichment on the behavior of captive owl monkeys (DuMond Conservancy, Miami, FL). Ten pairs of monkeys were systematically presented four different types of scents (cinnamon, nutmeg, rosemary, and sage). Male and female owl monkeys displayed the greatest interest to cinnamon (via sniffing and touching scent vials). Of the five females that flipped, four flipped less often when cinnamon was present than during control trials (empty spice vials). The rates of scratching and pacing were not affected by the presence of the scents. Our findings corroborate previous studies in mice, felids, and canids, which suggest that the presence of cinnamon decreases repetitive behaviors and improves welfare. Olfactory enrichment elicits interest and reduces repetitive flipping in owl monkeys and may offer similar benefits to other nocturnal primates. ItemPhenotypic plasticity of eye size in the freshwater zooplankton Daphnia in response to predatory cues(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Williams, BrandonThe eye is a complex organ which plays a crucial role in how an animal perceives and responds to its environment. Recent evidence has suggested that visual predation in an animal’s environment can influence the eye size morphology. Despite mounting evidence suggesting other factors that may be involved in evolution of eyes the literature is heavily dominated by articles solely looking at the effects of environmental light levels. Therefore, this study aimed to add to the literature regarding predation and eye size by looking at how varying degrees of predation affect eye morphology in a population of a small freshwater crustacean, Daphnia. Here, I test the visual target hypothesis the hypothesis predicts that the eye size of a Daphnia population under heavy predation will be significantly smaller than the populations exposed to little or no predation. In order to test this hypothesis, four species of Daphnia were split into two groups which were raised in water containing mosquitofish kairomones or filtered lake water. The groups were raised for two weeks and then body and eye size measurements were taken and showed that absolute body size and eye size were affected by the fish, but not relative eye size. ItemDon’t You Know that you are Toxic: The Effects of Allelopathy Within an Aquaponic System(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Walter, MadisonAquaponics systems are sustainable, closed systems that utilize fish waste as a mode of fertilization for various crops. Historically, aquaponics systems have mostly used fish such as tilapia, cod, and catfish rather than other aquatic life; however, an increasing number of aquaponics farmers have been successfully using crayfish, shrimp and prawns. A wide variety of plants have been grown in aquaponic systems. Allelopathic plants, or plants that are able to inhibit or enhance growth of other plants by releasing certain chemicals from their roots to interact with nearby plant roots, have not been studied in aquaponic systems. The following paper provides a details of a research study completed to observe the effects of garlic allelopathy on tomato plants within a crayfish aquaponic system. This study has the potential to optimize crop growth and yield in personal and commercial aquaponics systems, as well as broaden the understanding of how environment plays a role in the efficacy of allelopathic chemicals. ItemThe influence of personality and money priming on outcomes in the prisoner’s dilemma(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Urs, MedhiniMoney priming has been shown to cause behavioral changes in people, and make them more individualistic, persistent, and selfish. The money priming effect has been studied worldwide, and is known to have varying effect sizes depending on the method used to induce the prime. Game theoretical models have been utilized in studying the extent of money priming, however, there are mixed results with regards to the effect of money priming on outcomes in game theory. There may be a mediating factor of personality that has caused varying results in the literature. The proposed study aimed to determine whether money priming and personality (i.e., agreeableness and neuroticism) play a role in the outcomes of the prisoner’s dilemma. Contrary to previous research studies, results revealed that there was no evidence of money priming or personality playing a role in the rates of cooperation and defection in the prisoner’s dilemma game. ItemEvolutionary Conservation of Annexins in Petromyzon marinus, Sea Lamprey, a Neurodegenerative Disease Model(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Quaempts, CaitlinItem embargoed on 10-24-2021 ItemManhood Undone: Negotiating Trauma and Masculinity in Ernest Hemingway's In Our Time, Ron Kovic's Born on the Fourth of July, and Neil Simon's Biloxi Blues(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Opalinski, Anna Brook20th century definitions of masculinity for white, heterosexual men are often constructed around war; moreover, these ideological and behavioral constructions have shifted, as the theaters in which these wars were fought also changed. However, these concepts of masculinity did not usually account for post-war stressors, especially post-traumatic stress disorder. Indeed, combatants’ physical injuries challenged paradigms of the strong, invincible male body, while mental injuries undermined conceptions of male emotional strength. Reflective of the changing constructions of masculinity, American literature mirrors the evolving representations of masculinity, in particular, the characters Nick Adams in Ernest Hemingway’s World War I collection In Our Time (1925), Ron Kovic in his Vietnam memoir Born on the Fourth of July (1976), and Sergeant Merwin J. Toomey in Neil Simon’s World War II home-front drama Biloxi Blues (1984). Each of these texts exemplify white, heterosexual men’s struggles reconstructing their manhood after war. All three characters face similar hurdles: a) fulfilling society’s expectations of them to be the same men they were before war; and b) reconciling these expectations with their internal realizations that they cannot uphold such paradigms. Instead, they redefine and reclaim their masculinity in ways not often conventional to their time. ItemCharacterization of Red Pigment Producing Bacteria: An Honors Project(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Mauzy, IngaThis is a continuation of a project submitted as an Honors Proposal in April of 2019. The project focuses on five bacterial strains that are capable of producing both a red pigment and a green sheen on Marine Agar. The project was intended to further classify these organisms, through several experiments that originally included a carbohydrate utilization test, an Analytical Profile Index (API), determination of fatty acid composition, examining morphology, multi-locus sequence comparison, and/or comparing the absorption spectra. Since then, the project has switched gears and become more focused on genomic comparison. The five protein sequences studied were Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate A (GapA), RecA, RNA Polymerase A (RpoA), and Topoisomerase A (TopA). An attempt was made to isolate the sequences of each of the five genes in the following organisms: MI3, JD-17, JD-18, Renegade, and Little Penny. Unfortunately, the project was cut short due to lab closures in response to the COVID-19 Pandemic, and the only isolates sequenced were RecA, RpoA, TopA and 16s isolated from MI3. These sequences were compared to the known sequences of the genes from two strains of Zooshikella ganghwensis (15267 and JC2044) and one strain of Hahella chejuensis. ItemThe Relationship Between Working Memory Capacity and Implicit Gender Stereotypes(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Martin, JordanIt is no secret that attitudes are complex psychological constructs, and thus individual differences arise in attitudes towards people, things, or ideas. Two cognitive processes have an influence on one’s attitudes: explicit (i.e., deliberate and conscious awareness or belief) and implicit (i.e., unconscious control or belief). Stereotypes develop when generalizations are formed about a specific group, and these generalizations guide implicit attitudes. People are able to make quicker associations when ideas are consistent with a stereotype (e.g., in gender stereotypes, people can recognize the association between “male” and “office” quicker than “female” and “office”). Working memory capacity (WMC) has been described as the ability to hold information in the immediate consciousness to be used following the storage of that information. Individual differences in WMC influence cognitive tasks. Previous research focuses on self-regulatory behavior, suggesting that individuals with lower WMC are less capable of inhibiting implicit processes over explicit; therefore, implicit processes have stronger influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if these effects of WMC on implicit behavior could be generalized to the gender stereotype of females providing for the family and males remaining in the workplace, using the Implicit Association Test. ItemEverybody was Fungus Fighting: Examining the symbiotic interactions between Ericaceous plants and their beneficial fungal partnerships with Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma harzianum(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Lameyer, MaraMycorrhizal fungi form mutually beneficial partnerships with the roots of nearly all plants. The plants provide carbohydrates to the fungi while the fungi increase the surface area in the network of roots, which increases the absorption efficiency of the plant. Ericaceous plants, such as azaleas and blueberries, associate with a unique type of mycorrhizal fungi that has not been widely studied. RootShield, a biological fungicide product produced by BioWorks, employs another type of beneficial fungi, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-AG2, which blocks pathogenic fungi that may cause harm to the plant’s roots. It uses enzymes called chitinases to break down the walls of the harmful fungi. This project sought to investigate whether these two varieties of fungi, both of which are beneficial to the plant, can affect each other and ultimately lead to negative consequences when used in combination. While results were inconclusive, this previously unstudied field has a lot of potential research opportunities, which will ultimately provide valuable information for growers of Ericaceous plants. ItemIdentifying Convergence of ShK Toxins in Sea Anemones(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Krantz, Jacqueline; Marymegan, Daly; Macrander, JasonToxins and other naturally derived products synthesized for predatory defense or prey capture can often be harmful to humans, but in some cases they may also present pharmaceutical potential. One toxin in particular, commonly referred to as ShK, has been isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus and exhibits potential to treat autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. The currently existing ShK toxin as well as its analogs are not ideal in their target and treatment, exhibiting some flaws regarding effective transport and binding to Kv1.3 channels. Toxins containing this domain are ubiquitous across sea anemones as they target potassium ion channels, potentially being used to immobilize prey or deter predators. We hypothesized that there may be variations of the toxin that are naturally produced by other species. Our bioinformatic approach has found 586 ShK toxin candidates in 23 sea anemone species. Our results are the first step towards identifying ShK proteins that could combat various types of autoimmune or even neurological diseases. ItemSubversion from Within: Anne Bronte, Emily Bronte, and Mary Shelley's Gothic Feminism(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Kiester, HannahLong before recognized feminist movements began, women were fighting the patriarchal structure of society with the aims of equality and recognition. Woman writers have had to fight to gain a standing with their male counterparts in the literary public eye. For centuries, many women could only achieve success in their contemporary circles by publishing their work under a male or gender-neutral pseudonym. One such woman, Charlotte Brontë, said in a letter to her editor that an early critic of Jane Eyre “praised the book if it were written by a man, and pronounced it ‘odious’ if the work of a woman” (Qtd in Margaret Smith 139). In addition to being considered inferior in everyday life, women were also depicted in literature as typically flat characters that fit into a regressive trope or patriarchal stereotype representing all women. Female characters were traditionally cast in one of three roles: the mother, the prostitute, or the divine, “pure” female muse. In particular, the Gothic genre is full of tropes that reflect a lesser view of women—tropes such as the fainting heroine, the mistreated female servant, and the brooding Gothic hero, who is often revealed to be an abuser. [...] ItemImpact of Peer Support Group Involvement on College Students with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Johnson, SydneyThe transition to college life can be a challenging period of time for many young adults, especially those living with a chronic illness like type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Young adults with T1DM are faced with the same age-related transitions as their peers, such as moving away from home and going off to college, with the added challenge of learning to manage their diabetes independently (Chiang et al., 2014; Pihlaskari et al., 2018). Diabetes self-care entails a variety of tasks, such as monitoring blood glucose levels regularly, maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine, and taking insulin as prescribed. Factors related to life on campus, like sleep, nutrition, work and class schedule, and personal relationships, can have a significant impact on a student’s ability to manage T1DM while in college (Kellett et al., 2018; Saylor & Calamaro, 2016). An additional challenge for young adults navigating diabetes self-care while in college is the tendency to prioritize other factors, like studying, working, or spending time with friends, over performing diabetes self-care (Lu et al., 2014; Pyatak et al., 2018). ItemA Proposed Methodology for the Cardiac Analysis of Parasitically Infected Cuban Treefrogs(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Horton, ThomasCuban treefrogs are a successful invasive species within the state of Florida, which have harmed Florida’s native ecosystem (Johnson, 2017). The parasite Apharyngostrigea pipientis has been found using the Cuban treefrog tadpole as a secondary intermediate host during development. During this process, the parasite encysts around the heart and mesenteries. It is unknown how these parasites impact the survivability of the tadpoles and whether their presence impedes cardiac function. This paper proposes a methodology to examine both heart function, and myocardial thickness as a result of the presence of A. pipientis. Due to the spring semester not having enough rain to support tadpoles, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic, only parts of the protocol were able to be done. Pulse oximetry on tadpoles found that Cuban Treefrog tadpoles between Gosner stages 26 and 39 had an average oxygen saturation of 97.2%. Parameters for the successful use of pulse oximetry on tadpoles was generated, alongside a protocol for histological analysis of tadpole myocardium and endocardium. ItemApplying Legal Theory to Racism in American Society(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Hill, RebeccaRacism has shown to be a trying part of American history. From slavery to mass incarceration, race relations has proved to be a dominant force in social, economic, and political aspects of society. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the combination of the theories given by H.L.A. Hart, a British legal philosopher, and Derrick Bell, an American lawyer, professor, and civil rights activist, can be used to gain a more comprehensive view on the American legal system which can be used to show how there is room for reform under the current system. Racism has been prevalent throughout all of American history and so when thinking about the American legal system it is impossible to theorize about the system effectively without taking racism into account. While both Hart and Bell’s philosophical inquiries can be used separately, the combination of the two gives a more comprehensive view on how the American system operates. The value of this is that the combination of the two is more applicable to how the system operates in the real world. ItemGreen FSC: Creating a Sustainable Campus(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Haver, MarkColleges and universities account for more than 1.5% of US total annual emissions: understanding how individual institutions can become more sustainable is critical in tackling the existential threat of global climate change (Klein-Banai and Theis, 2013). Institutions of higher education from Elon University to Florida State University have established Offices of Sustainability dedicated toward reducing the campus’ environmental impact. In embracing the Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired relationship between humankind and nature, through evaluation of electricity consumption and environmental curricula, Florida Southern can adopt a plan for improving campus sustainability that allows her to join a diverse cohort of schools who have already done the same. After reviewing 14,000+ electric bills over four years, FSC has released approximately 449,045,367.8 lbCO2. On a yearly basis, the cost to offset these emissions would be slightly more than $500,000. Emissions must not be the only factor in improving campus sustainability. Holistic sustainability requires review of environmental curricula for all students. After researching sustainability and requirements for Environmental Studies majors at Pomona College, Middlebury College, Elon University, and Rollins College, recommendations for reformation of the Environmental Studies major at Florida Southern have been provided. Short-term prospects include creation of environmental economics, policy, communications, and capstone courses and long-term prospects include envisioning an administrative and academic Office of Sustainability that can oversee all aspects of sustainability. Most importantly, if sustainability projects are to hold a legacy on any campus, there needs to be a coalition of active student environmentalists to continue the push toward green progress. After consulting student environmental leaders, an outline for an ongoing and coordinated sustainability campaign on campus has been drawn. ItemAnalysis of the Stomach Tissue Microbiome within Florida Manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Hamontree, SamanthaIdentification of the microbiome within marine mammals, including sirenians has been the focus of recent research. While previous work has identified the microbiome from the lower gastrointestinal tract (fecal samples) of manatees and dugongs, we sought to examine the microbiome of the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically the stomach of Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris. We obtained two stomach tissue samples (one sample from the greater curvature of the stomach and the other from the lesser curvature of the stomach) from three recently deceased Florida manatees in collaboration with the Marine Mammal Pathobiology Laboratory in St. Petersburg, FL between 2013-2016. These samples were stored at -80C until processing, when DNA was extracted from the thawed stomach tissue using the Zymobiomics DNA miniprep kit. Samples were sent for metagenomics sequencing utilizing the V3 and V4 variable regions of 16S rRNA gene at Genewiz (New Jersey, USA). As expected, several species of fermenting microorganisms were found as well as cellulose degrading microorganisms. Statistical tests were implemented to compare bacterial abundance and diversity between manatees and the two tissue sections that were sampled. Here, we are the first to report the microbiome composition inhabiting the upper gastrointestinal tract within any sirenian. While this is the first study to describe the stomach microbiome of Florida manatees, our findings will be available for future studies as a baseline for the microbiome of the upper gastrointestinal tracts of sirenians. Since the composition of the microbiome has been linked to health in other mammals, this research project may provide important information to veterinary care providers. ItemThe Grace of Silence(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Grisanti, AmandaA feature screenplay, finished. This presentation discusses the yearlong writing process for a feature length script. Focusing on themes of mental health, this story follows the struggle of 22-year-old Grace. After graduating from college, Grace is ready to start her life. Unfortunately for her, life is not what she wanted it to be. Grace lives with her verbally abusive mother Sheila who is intent on controlling Grace's future. When pressures mount from all angles, Grace struggles to maintain control and checks herself into a psychiatric hospital where she meets Hannah. Hannah is a 25 year-old pregnant psychiatric patient who immediately takes a liking to Grace. Through this unlikely friendship, Grace gains a new perspective on her life. This presentation will cover the writing process involved with a screenplay of this length along with an explanation of how my ideas began and how they shifted as I moved forward. ItemImportance of the Past: The Cathartic Effect of Reliving Memories in Female Irish Short Stories(Florida Southern College, 2020-04) Green, RebekahThis thesis is concerned with the treatment of the themes of memory and trauma in Irish short stories written by female authors. The authors in the text use memory as a way to explore both personal and cultural trauma; the contemporary works show a shift in this treatment, a movement towards catharsis through narrative psychotherapy. Additionally, not only do these characters undergo the process of confronting traumas, but the authors themselves also use their texts as a way to confront their own Anglo-Irish identity and the associated turmoil.