2021 Spring

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 21
  • Item
    Seasonal Prevalence and Host Specificity of Lawrencarus sp. Mites in Anuran Hosts
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Smith, Emma
    Ereynetid mites of the subfamily Lawrencarinae are small, free-living, endoparasitic mites found in the nasal passages of anuran hosts. While the physical and physiological attributes of the Lawrencarena subfamily have been described, there is little else known about this group of mites. This current study experimentally explores the anuran hosts, specificity of these parasitic mites and establishes the seasonal prevalence, abundance and host specificity of Lawrencarus cf. hylae mites in anurans over a year-long collection period near Lakeland Highland Scrub in Lakeland, Florida. A total of 378 endoparasitic mites were collected from the nasal cavity of Rana sphenocephala (Southern Leopard Frog). Seasonal prevalence, mean abundance, and mean intensity were not significantly different between male and female hosts, and there was no correlation found between host snout-vent length and parasite intensity for male and female hosts. The prevalence of infections in R. sphenocephala reached a peak of 90% in the fall, but never dropped below 60% during any season; mean abundance peaked in the spring, and the fewest mites were collected in the winter. The abundance of natural infection in R. sphenocephala in comparison to other anuran species studied could be an indication of host species preference. In experimental infections, the prevalence of infection of each anuran host was above 40%, and choice experimental infections indicated a preference of R. sphenocephala with a prevalence of infection of 100%. Overall, this study provides an investigation into the host specificity and preference of Lawrencarus cf. hylae mites, which presents insights into an understudied endoparasitic species.
  • Item
    Invasive Parasites: A survey of endoparasites in Salvator merianae populations in Florida
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Fonseca, Marisa; Langford, Gabriel J.
    The Argentine Black and White Tegu (Salvator meriane) is a large lizard native to South America that has been introduced to central and south Florida. With successful breeding populations in at least two locations, and the ability to acclimate to many temperate climates of the other southeastern states, it is becoming increasingly more important to monitor all biological aspects of this invasive lizard, including their parasites. No detailed published records exist on the endoparasites from these invasive populations. Thirty-one Argentine Black and White Tegus from central and southern Florida were necropsied to perform an extensive parasite examination of these invasive populations. The necropsies revealed that the tegus brought three species of exotic nematode to Florida from South America (Physaloptera tupinambae, Diaphanocephalus galeatus, Cruzia lauroi) and were also infected with Raillietiella orientalis, a pentastome introduced to Florida via invasive Burmese Pythons (Python bivittatus). The invasive pentastome is known to infect native snakes and cause harm to their respiratory tracts. It is unknown how the exotic parasites from the tegus will impact native Florida reptiles, however, the ability for R. orientalis to infect the Argentine Black and White Tegu could lead to the rapid spread of this invasive parasite throughout the southeastern United States.
  • Item
    Movement and Physiology of Invasion Front Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Central Florida
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-04) Mazariegos, Kayleigh; Langford, Gabriel J.
    In Australia and Florida, cane toads (Rhinella marina) are an invasive species that have wreaked havoc on local ecosystems. Native to South and Central America, these toads secrete a toxin harmful to both fauna and humans, strongly impacting Florida wildlife. Previous studies in Australia have established that actively invading toads change morphologically to have longer limbs, greater speed, and greater endurance compared to those that remain established in a single population. However, our research in central Florida suggests that the opposite may be occurring at this invasion site. Our experimental studies on toads suggest that those at Florida invasion fronts have shorter limbs, lower muscle mass, and less endurance. In addition, surveys evaluating the movement of the invasion itself were taken over 6 years to follow the path of travel and establish mean migration across the state. Contrary to the rapid expansion in all directions seen in Australia, our invasion appears to follow human development such as roadways eastward from Tampa, Florida at a slow and steady pace. Additional research is required to establish a mechanism creating the discrepancies between the two populations of invasion and established toads in both Florida and Australia. Establishing the differences between the two groups can give key insight into the management strategy of this invasive species and help preserve the health of Florida's ecosystem.
  • Item
    Promising Young Women: Contemporary Case Studies in the Rape Revenge Fantasy Subgenre of Feature Films
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05-07) Talbert, Sophie; Allen, William
    According to the Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network, one out of every six American women has been the victim of an attempted or a completed rape during her lifetime (Scope of the Problem: Statistics | RAINN, n.d.). However, the American justice system is relatively inactive in their response to this issue, as the vast majority of sexual offenders will not go to jail or prison. In fact, out of every 1000 sexual assaults, 995 perpetrators will not face any consequences (The Criminal Justice System: Statistics RAINN, n.d.). The epidemic of sexual assault has been an issue for centuries, and continues to affect too a significant amount of men and women today. Due to its unfortunate prominence in society, several films include depictions of sexual assault or utilize the event as a key plot device in their stories.
  • Item
    Testing the Validity of the InjurySway App and Vibration’s Effect on Shoulder Control
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Winton, Amber; Lynch, James M.; Marshall, Erica M.
    Upper extremity stability is critical for injury prevention. Vibration may improve proprioception, reducing injury risk. Mobile applications are accessible reliable tools to measure recovery in athletes. One research purpose investigated whether the InjurySway iPhone app is a valid measure of upper extremity proprioception. The other was whether an acute bout of shoulder exercise performed with an inexpensive vibration toy improves shoulder position sense. Each session, the subject held the phone on the palm, arm forward for 20 seconds both arms. Each subject then completed a Full Can exercise set with the randomly assigned Bumble Ball state (vibration/no vibration) and repeated the app stability measure. Subjects completed a session with the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST). Subjects assumed a pushup position and alternated touching two pieces of tape, 36 inches apart for 15 seconds. Thirty subjects (age 18-22) completed three trials. There was no correlation between path lengths of the conditions and CKCUEST touches. There was a significant decrease in sway over time for both conditions, but no significant difference between the two. Therefore, the Full Can exercise bout decreased sway, but vibration did not contribute to a significant difference. The InjurySway app is not a valid proprioception measure.
  • Item
    Development of a Field-Ready Colorimetric Test for the Identification of Synthetic Cathinones
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Trimble, Jack
    In recent years, the number of synthetic cathinone derivatives has increased dramatically. The effects of the extended use of these compounds is not well understood, leaving health professionals and law enforcement at a severe disadvantage when it comes to addressing global cathinone abuse. There is currently no viable field-ready presumptive test for the identification of all synthetic cathinone derivatives due to their rapid modification and proliferation in clandestine labs. Here, a novel colorimetric test for the detection of synthetic cathinones using transition metal salts is discussed. The test targets the ketone functionality present on all synthetic cathinone derivatives. No visible color change was observed when the target drug molecule was added to the aqueous metal solutions. Further research into the possible use of catalysts or other metal compounds would be beneficial. Namely, catalysts capable of facilitating metal alkoxide formation.
  • Item
    The Effect of College Majors on Students' Perceptions of Sexual Offenders
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Santore, Madison
    The purpose of my honors thesis is to determine whether or not students' opinions and assumptions about sex offenders differ according to their college major. This project also examines whether students' academic disciplines shape their perspectives on sanctions and policies for a type of crime that is known to be so egregious. In the United States, public opinion helps shape policies against sex crimes (Redlich, 2002). More research is needed to determine where and how the general public obtains information and forms opinions related to sex crimes. However, factors such as age, gender, income, and level of education are thought to be some of the main characteristics that help shape public perception (Budd, 2017). In addition to the level of education, the specific types of education that students are receiving can affect where they stand on societal issues, including sex crimes and criminal sanctions (Budd, 2017). My hypothesis was that students who are pursuing a degree in criminology will be more in favor of stricter sanctions and will show signs of lower empathy levels towards sexual offenders than students of other academic majors.
  • Item
    Generation of Controlled Release Gelatin-NSAID Conjugates for Post-Surgical Applications
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Rozen, Emily; Shelby, Shameka J.
    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often prescribed after surgery to reduce inflammation and aid in pain management. NSAIDs, such as Advil, Motrin, and Aleve, are typically taken orally as over-the-counter medication. While these drugs are typically safe in small doses, sustained intake of high doses can have adverse side effects. The goal of this project was to design a product that would allow for direct application of NSAIDs to the surgical site, avoiding systemic circulation. By conjugating the NSAID to a gelatin hemostatic agent, the product can be applied to the open site and provide a subcutaneous delayed release. Type B gelatin was conjugated to the NSAID diclofenac using 1-ethyl-3-(-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as the cross-linking agent. UV-Vis spectrometry confirmed concentrations eluted across different time frames to confirm the presence of a controlled release system. Use of this new technology in post-operative scenarios may help to lower NSAID intake, efficiently aid in patient pain management, and improve surgical protocols.
  • Item
    The Reality of Dystopia in Politics and Media: A Critical Examination of Nineteen Eighty-Four, Fahrenheit 451, and V for Vendetta
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Newton, Grace
    In 1949, George Orwell published his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, a story of a dark, dystopian future. In the wake of World War II, the future seemed bleak to many people, including those in Western democratic societies. While Orwell’s vision never came to pass, his work remains popular with audiences, even impacting society to the point of adding vocabulary. In 1953, Ray Bradbury released Fahrenheit 451, illustrating his own ideas of complete censorship and giving readers a supposedly “cautionary tale” on the problems of government-imposed societal limitations. Now, websites that are forced for legal reasons to block resources return a status code of “451.” Thirty years after Fahrenheit 451, Alan Moore and David Lloyd published V for Vendetta, a graphic novel depicting a totalitarian regime, taking both real and fictional symbols to craft its dystopian setting. Often seen as a symbol of resistance against governmental oppression, the Guy Fawkes mask used in the story has become popular among anarchist groups. All three texts have retained popularity and remain on all-time bestseller lists, and their impacts on modern society are undeniable. However, with such dark messages, the question of why these works are popular still stands.
  • Item
    The Implementation of a Spartan Model’s Effect on Students’ Overall Understanding of Esterification Reactions
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Mills, Korinne
    Organic Chemistry students often struggle with using information provided to them to extend to new situations. Inquiry-based labs and assignments have shown to improve students’ ability to extend their knowledge to new situations. For example, rather than confirming what students already know, inquiry-based labs can help students internalize the concepts. This may help students, for example, rationalizing how substituents may impact a reaction. Students at Florida Southern College have an inquiry-based lab on greener esterification that explores the effect of substituents on greener esterification reactions, which requires students understand and apply many different conceptual phenomenon. Though students can recognize there is a pattern in the data, they struggle with justifying their observations. An activity using Spartan, a computational software that produces calculated visualizations and numerical values for molecules and reactions, was introduced prior to the students completing the inquiry-based lab and writing their lab report. Its effect on students' understanding of the lab was then determined through comparing students’ lab reports from this year to students’ lab reports from previous semesters who did not complete the model-based activity. Students’ learning progression throughout Organic Chemistry I and II was followed to determine the effect of the model-based activity on students’ understanding. Students’ foundational understanding of electron density was determined at the beginning Organic Chemistry I and followed as students learned about electrophilicity and the reactivity of benzene ring derivatives via questions on in class quizzes. From the analysis of the open-ended questions on the in-class quizzes emerging misconceptions were also determined.
  • Item
    Evaluation of the Greener Synthesis of a Series of Electronically Modified Stilbene Analogues as Novel Anticancer Agents
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Metcalfe, Candace Jessica; Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.
    Cancer is the uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells that affects millions of people. Due to the important role microtubules play in cell division, drugs-targeting microtubules can initiate apoptosis, preventing further proliferation of cancer cells, and thus, are often used in chemotherapy. While extensive research has been done to develop anti-cancer drugs targeting taxanes and vinca alkaloid binding sites of microtubules, there are currently no Food and Drug Administration approved colchicine-binding site inhibitors (CBSIs) that have been approved for cancer treatment. Due to the preliminary promising results of CBSIs, a series of electronically varied stilbene analogues targeting the colchicine-binding site of microtubules was synthesized using green chemistry principles. The characterizations of the products via GC-MS and NMR indicated there was a disproportionately large amount of byproduct relative to the desired target compounds. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, solely computational docking studies were used to compare the effectiveness of the molecule with various electron donating and withdrawing groups (EDGs and EWGs) added to the stilbene scaffold at different positions and in different combinations. The docking poses suggest stilbene analogues may not bind to the colchicine domain, and the docking scores reflected more EWGs than EDGs had equivalent or higher binding affinities compared to past intended CBSIs, but were not statistically significant. Further studies need to be conducted to assess actual binding and cytotoxicity.
  • Item
    Shell of a life: A review of the geographic frequency of amphipods, cnidarians and annelids as loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) epibionts
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Martin, Bailey; Langford, Melanie L.
    Loggerhead sea turtles carry diverse communities of organisms including many invertebrate species on their carapace as epibionts. Investigating the frequency of amphipods, cnidarians and annelids from several epibiont studies in different hemispheres reveals geographic information such as migratory behavior about these three groups and their relationships with loggerhead sea turtles. Frequency data from 383 loggerheads in 8 epibiont identification studies was extrapolated and analyzed. A total of 84 invertebrate species were described among these studies. 7% of the total species (6) were cosmopolitan, or found in both hemispheres. The eastern hemisphere displayed the highest overall number of species (49), followed by the western hemisphere with 29 species. The only group found in greater frequency in the western hemisphere was the cnidarians, and this study suggests that cnidarians reside primarily in one hemisphere or the other, therefore sea turtles may lose them from the carapace when migrating. Annelida species were found in low frequencies in both geographic locations but should be expected on loggerhead carapaces in the Mediterranean. Overall, many invertebrates, including ones described in this review, could be deemed novel obligate commensals of loggerheads and their relationship with migrating species provides insight to movement patterns and the life stages of sea turtles.
  • Item
    What can Hollywood Learn from YouTube?
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Lewis, John Jack
    Though most of a film’s marketing budget is directed toward television advertisements, the rise in video-sharing platforms provides an additional outlet for promotion. Arguably, the most notable of these video-sharing platforms is YouTube. This paper addresses how the data of a film trailer released on YouTube – like number of views, comments, likes, and dislikes – help predict the generated revenue for a film, additionally exploring how these features expand on the effect of other features in the filmmaking process. The data used to evaluate these features is generated from films released in the 2010s in The Movie Database (TMDb) and video trailer statistics from the YouTube Data API. Specifically, these features are used to train machine learning models to evaluate which models are most successful in revealing connections between these features and revenue. This work closely examines the impact of the statistics of a film trailer from YouTube to help producers better understand the impact of their investments.
  • Item
    Horror, Halloween, and Hegemony: A Psychoanalytical Profile and Empirical Gender Study of the “Final Girls” in the Halloween Franchise
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Lehmann, Tabatha; Smith, Patrick L.
    The purpose of this study is to determine how the perceptions of femininity have changed throughout time. This can be made possible through a psychoanalysis of the main character of Halloween, Laurie Strode, and other female characters from the original Halloween film released in 1978 to the more recent sequel announced in 2018. Previous research has shown that horror films from the slasher genre in the 1970s and 1980s have historically depicted men and women as displaying behaviors that are largely indicative of their gender stereotypes (Clover, 1997; Connelly, 2007). Men are typically the antagonists of these films, and display perceptible aggression, authority, and physical strength; on the contrary, women generally play the victims, and are usually portrayed as weaker, more subordinate, and often in a role that perpetuates the classic stereotypes of women as more submissive to males and as being more emotionally stricken during perceived traumatic events (Clover, 1997; Lizardi, 2010; Rieser, 2001; Williams, 1991). Research has also shown that the “Final Girl” in horror films—the last girl left alive at the end of the movie—has been depicted as conventionally less feminine compared to other female characters featured in these films (De Muzio, 2006; Lizardi, 2010). This study found that Laurie Strode in 1978 was more highly rated on a gender role scale for feminine characteristics, while Laurie Strode in 2018 was found to have had significantly higher rating for masculine word descriptors than feminine. The results show that examining femininity throughout generations of women in this classic slasher film franchise can therefore help determine how gender stereotypes have changed within the forty-year time span between the 1978 and 2018 Halloween films as a function of time and age.
  • Item
    Characterization of the Mutant ProP Protein in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Hamcho, Faez Patrick; Gasper, Brittany J.
    Mechanisms invoked by organisms to combat osmotic stress are ubiquitous. The information gained from analyzing osmotic adaptations can be broadly applied, to creating drought-resistant crops, understanding disease pathologies, and fighting bacterial infections. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella typhimurium, hereafter) has a transport protein called ProP that undergoes post-translational modifications that allow it to uptake osmoprotectants in the face of osmotic stress. The nature of these post-translational modifications is not well understood since the protein has not been crystallized. The aim of my study was to further characterize 6 Salmonella typhimurium strains that have a mutant ProP protein that has conformational changes that mimic post-translationally modified wild-type proteins. I did so by running a sequence alignment between Salmonella typhimurium and 22 related species to gain an understanding of the importance of the regions of ProP needed for function and I modeled the mutated amino acid sequences on a related protein to gain a better understanding of how the mutations affect the confirmation of the protein. The regions where the mutations occurred in the mutants were found to play a significant role in ProP’s function based on their conservation among 22 ProP orthologs, and the majority of the mutations could significantly affect ProP’s function in a way that likely mimics the wildtype.
  • Item
    Hatred of the Hijab: Islamophobia and Muslim Women in America
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Hagan, Rachel
    In this paper, I investigate the phenomenon of Islamophobia in the United States, specifically how it affects Muslim women. Many scholars have researched Islamophobic speech using stereotypes of Muslim men, but research on stereotypes of Muslim women is lacking. Thus, I address the following question: Does a major terrorist attack cause a rise in Islamophobic rhetoric, and does this vary by perpetrator gender? I create a typology of Islamophobic rhetoric that outlines three different types: Muslim men are terrorists, Muslim women are oppressed, and Muslims cannot assimilate. I hypothesize that a major terrorist attack would cause an increase in Islamophobic rhetoric coming from elites. To investigate this, I chose five terrorist attacks to research in depth, then I used Congressional records to understand elite rhetoric after these attacks, taking into account perpetrator identity and using the three types of Islamophobia I outline. Muslim women are not often discussed or included in discussions, whereas Muslim men are discussed, albeit often in a negative light. I found that Muslim men are terrorists and Muslims cannot assimilate Islamophobia are evident in elite rhetoric after terrorist attacks, but Muslim women are oppressed Islamophobia is not often overtly present.
  • Item
    Green Synthesis of a Metal-Organic Framework Selective Towards the Binding of Methylene Blue
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Desilets, Hunter
    In the summer of 2010, the U.N. deemed that all humans had a right to water, and access to fresh drinking water is a requirement to fulfil other rights. However, millions of people across the globe still live without access to clean drinking water. Shifting weather patterns due to climate change are making access to fresh water even more difficult for some areas, so their reliance on wastewater treatment facilities will only grow if water demands are to be met sustainably. Unfortunately, there exists a class of chemicals known as emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), which easily pass through the filtration systems of conventional wastewater treatment facilities. However, another class of materials known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), can be used in junction with classical filtration systems to selectively bind and remove EOCs from the wastewater. The synthesis of MOFs often requires the use of harsh solvents and prolonged use of elevated temperatures. In this work, two MOFs, MIL-53 and NH2-MIL-53 are synthesized in water at room temperature, and for the first time, sodium bicarbonate is used as a deprotonation agent. The absorption capabilities the latter MOF has of Methylene blue, a potent EOC, are analyzed as an application. Following the synthesis method provided in this work, a range of MOFs could be synthesized without the need for harsh solvents and at room temperature, substantially increasing the green characteristics of the synthesis.
  • Item
    Assessing the Vanishing Lesbian in Book-to-Film Adaptations: A Critical Study of Rebecca, Fried Green Tomatoes, and Black Panther
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Coursen, Felicia
    Popular media consistently disregards lesbian voices and identities. The film industry, as a facet of popular media, often neglects to tell lesbian stories. When films do include lesbian characters, the depictions are often problematic and grounded in stereotypes. Literary critic and queer theorist Terry Castle argues the following in her book, The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture: “The lesbian remains a kind of ‘ghost effect’ in the cinema world of modern life: elusive, vaporous, difficult to spot – even when she is there, in plain view, mortal and magnificent, at the center of the screen. Some may even deny she exists at all”.
  • Item
    The statistics of the Oscars: What type of nominee will win?
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Carlton, Jacqueline R.
    The trends and correlations in the Academy Awards have been in the public eye for years. These trends may lead to the ability to understand the differences between winners and nominees in each category. This study will analyze the Oscars over the years 2000-2019, and identify the different variables that may be significant in predicting a winner from a nominee in each category. This study strives to understand trends in the Oscars, and find correlations between a winning entity and different variables (examples include genre, gender, number of previous nominations, etc.). The study will be using statistical methods such as ANOVA analysis, and binary logistic regression along with other statistical tests to calculate the variables that will be the most effective in comparing and understanding the differences between the winners and nominees in each category. Its goal is to explain the different factors that go into an Oscar nominee becoming an Oscar winner.
  • Item
    Ideology and Femininity in Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights, and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall
    (Florida Southern College, 2021-05) Bliss, Sarah; Moffitt, Jennifer Leigh
    Between 1847 and 1848, the literary market of Victorian England convulsed under the influence of two novels from previously unknown authors: Currer Bell’s Jane Eyre and Ellis Bell’s Wuthering Heights. Known to a slightly smaller number was a novel by a third Bell: The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, by Acton Bell. Despite the authors’ relative obscurity, these novels quickly drew popular attention—and incited controversy