Browsing by Author "Kingsley, J. Derek"
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- ItemCardiac Autonomic Function Following Bilateral and Unilateral Upper Body Acute Resistance Exercise(Pub Med, 2022-05-17) Marshall, Erica M.; Parks, Jason C.; Erb, Emily K.; Humm, Stacie M.; Kingsley, J. DerekThe purpose of this study was to compare cardiac autonomic responses following bilateral and unilateral upper-body (UB) acute resistance exercise (ARE). In total, 14 individuals were assessed for markers of cardiac autonomic responses via heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) at rest and at 10- and 30-min following ARE. Logarithmically transformed (ln) HRV measures included: total power (ln TP), high-frequency power (ln HF power), low-frequency power (ln LF power), sympathovagal balance (ln LF: HF), and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (ln RMSSD). BRS was assessed using the sequence method. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to analyze effects of UB ARE (bilateral, unilateral) across time (Rest, 10, and 30 min). There were no significant ( p > 0.05) interactions. However, there were significant ( p ≤ 0.05) main effects of time such that ln TP, ln HF power, ln RMSSD, and BRS decreased and did not recover within 30 min compared to Rest for both conditions. Collectively, this study suggests that bilateral and unilateral UB ARE yielded similar reductions, for at least 30 min, in respect to vagal measures of HRV and BRS.
- ItemEffects of a Cool-Down after Supramaximal Interval Exercise on Autonomic Modulation(MDPI Country of Publication: Switzerland, 2022-04-29) Parks, Jason C.; Marshall, Erica M.; Humm, Stacie M.; Erb, Emily K.; Kingsley, J. DerekSupramaximal interval exercise alters measures of autonomic modulation, while a cool-down may speed the recovery of vagal modulation. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a cool-down (pedaling a cycle ergometer at 50 rpm against a resistance of 45 W) versus passive recovery (no pedaling) after supramaximal interval exercise on autonomic modulation. Sixteen moderately active individuals (Mean ± SD: 23 ± 3 years (men: n = 10; women: n = 6) were assessed for autonomic modulation at Rest, and 15 (R15), 30 (R30), 45 (R45) and 60 (R60) min following supramaximal interval exercise. Linear measures of autonomic modulation included natural log (ln) total power (lnTP), high-frequency power (lnHF), the ratio of low frequency (LF) to HF ln(LF/HF) ratio, root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats (lnRMSSD), while non-linear measures included sample entropy (SampEn) and Lempel-Ziv entropy (LZEn). Two-way repeated ANOVAs were used to evaluate the main effects of condition (cool-down, passive recovery) across time (Rest, and R15, R30, R45 and R60). There were significant ( p ≤ 0.05) condition by time interactions for SampEn and LZEn, such that they decreased at 15, 30, 45 and 60 min during passive recovery compared to Rest, with the recovery of SampEn and LZEn by 60 and 45 min, respectively, during cool-down. There were significant ( p ≤ 0.05) main effects of time for lnTP, lnHF and lnRMSSD, such that lnTP, lnHF and lnRMSSD were attenuated, and lnLF/HF ratio was augmented, at all recovery times compared to Rest. These data demonstrate that a cool-down increases the recovery of nonlinear measures of vagal modulation within 45-60 min after supramaximal interval exercise, compared to passive recovery in moderately active individuals.
- ItemHemodynamic response and pulse wave analysis after upper- and lower-body resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction(Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 2021-10) Tai, Yu L.; Marshall, Erica M.; Parks, Jason C.; Kingsley, J. DerekResistance exercise (RE) has been shown to elevate hemodynamics and pulse wave reflection. However, the effects of acute RE with blood flow restriction (BFR) on hemodynamics and pulse wave reflection are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences between upper- and lower-body RE with and without BFR on hemodynamics and pulse wave reflection. Twenty-three young resistance-trained individuals volunteered for the study. Hemodynamics and pulse wave reflection were assessed at rest, 10, 25, 40, and 55 min after either upper- or lower-body with or without BFR. The upper-body RE (URE) consisted of the latissimus dorsi pulldown and chest press; the lower-body RE (LRE) consisted of knee extension and knee flexion. The BFR condition consisted of four sets of 30, 15, 15, and 15 repetitions at 30% 1-repetition maximum (1RM) while the without BFR condition consisted of four sets of 8 repetitions at 70% 1RM. Heart rate, rate pressure product, and subendocardial viability ratio significantly (p < 0.05) increased after all exercises. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) significantly (p < 0.05) elevated after LRE while brachial and aortic diastolic BP significantly (p < 0.05) reduced after URE. Augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AIx), AIx normalized at 75 bpm, and wasted left ventricular pressure energy significantly (p < 0.05) increased after URE while transit time of reflected wave significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after LRE. URE places greater stress on pulse wave reflection while LRE results in greater responses in BP. Regardless of URE or LRE, the cardiovascular responses between BFR and without BFR are similar.HIGHLIGHTS High-load resistance exercise and low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction may produce similar cardiovascular responses.Upper-body resistance exercise generates greater changes on pulse wave reflections while lower-body resistance exercise induces greater elevations in systolic blood pressure.
- ItemVascular Responses to High-Intensity Battling Rope Exercise between the Sexes(Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 2021-06) Marshall, Erica M.; Parks, Jason C.; Singer, Tyler J.; Tai, Yu Lun; DeBord, Alexa R.; Humm, Stacie M.; Kingsley, J. DerekThe purpose of the study was to assess high-intensity battling rope exercise (HI-BRE) on hemodynamics, pulse wave reflection and arterial stiffness during recovery and between sexes. Twentythree young, healthy resistance-trained individuals (men: n = 13; women: n = 10) were assessed for all measures at Rest, as well as 10-, 30-, and 60-minutes following HI-BRE. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of HI-BRE across time (Rest, 10, 30, and 60-minutes) on all dependent variables. Significant main effects were analyzed using paired t-tests with a Sidak correction factor. Significance was accepted a priori at p - 0.05. There were significant reductions in hemodynamic measures of diastolic blood pressure (BP) in women, but not men following HI-BRE at 30 minutes. Further, measures of pulse wave reflection, specifically those of the augmentation index (AIx) and wasted left ventricular energy (-Ew), were significantly increased in both men and women for 60 minutes, but changes were significantly attenuated in women suggesting less ventricular work. There were also significant increases in arterial stiffness in regard to the aorta and common carotid artery that were fully recovered by 30 and 60 minutes, respectively with no differences between men and women. Thus, the primary findings of this study suggest that measures of hemodynamics and pulse wave reflection are collectively altered for at least 60 minutes following HIBRE, with women having attenuated responses compared to men.