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ItemChildren's reactions to apologies(American Psychological Association, 1982-10) Darby, Bruce W.; Schlenker, Barry R.In 2 experiments, 221 kindergartners and 1st, 4th, and 7th graders judged actors who committed a transgression under conditions of low or high responsibility and low or high consequences. The actor's motives were good or bad and the act was intended or accidental. The actor then either did nothing or employed 1 of 3 increasingly elaborate apologies. As hypothesized, the actor's predicament was most severe, producing the harshest judgments when (a) the actor had high responsibility for committing an inadvertent act that produced high consequences, and (b) the act was the result of a bad rather than good motive or was intended rather than accidental. More elaborate apologies produced less blame and punishment and more forgiveness, liking, positive evaluations, and attributions of greater remorse. The judgments of the 7th graders were more affected by the actor's apology than those of the younger Ss. These age differences reflect the younger Ss' poorer ability to integrate social information and appreciate the implications of social conventions. However, the younger Ss' judgments were similar to those of older Ss. ItemChildren's understanding of social anxiety(American Psychological Association, 1986-09) Darby, Bruce W.; Schlenker, Barry R.Second-, fourth-, and seventh-grade children evaluated story characters who were either highly or less motivated to impress an audience and had either high or low expectations of being able to accomplish their self-presentational goals. As predicted according to a self-presentation model of social anxiety, both factors were related to judgments of the character's social anxiety, especially for the older children. For all age groups, actors who expected to do poorly rather than well were regarded as more anxious, as more likely to exhibit nervous responses and to have communication difficulties, and as less likely to be successful in accomplishing their goal, and they were evaluated less favorably. The actor's motivation had different effects on younger versus older children: Second graders attributed less anxiety to highly motivated actors, whereas older children attributed greater anxiety to them. For all age groups, high motivation was expected to have a channeling effect on behaviors that would increase interpersonal effectiveness. A finding that was consistent with the literature on social-cognitive development was that older children displayed greater differentiation in their cause-effect inferences, and they better appreciated the complex implications of social anxiety. ItemChildren's reactions to transgressions: Effects of the actor's apology, reputation and remorse(Wiley, 1989-12) Darby, Bruce W.; Schlenker, Barry R.This experiment examined children's reactions to a transgression in which one child's property was damaged by another who (a) had a reputation as a good or bad child, (b) apologized or did not, and (c) later expressed remorse when talking about the incident or was happy and unremorseful. As expected, actors who had a good reputation or were remorseful were seen as more likable, as having better motives, as doing the damage unintentionally, as more sorry and as less blameworthy. Further, actors who were good and remorseful were punished least, suggesting that punishment was applied in a rehabilitative fashion. The actor's reputation determined how his or her actions were interpreted: bad actors were seen as more worried about punishment when they expressed remorse and older children thought they apologized merely to avoid punishment. Interestingly, apologies were effective in reducing punishment and making the actor seem more likable, and this was true irrespective of the other factors. The apology‐forgiveness script may be such an ingrained aspect of social life that its appearance automatically improves the actor's position. The reactions of second and fifth graders were generally similar, although the younger children displayed less coherent relationships between judgements. ItemSchool drop-out prevention: A multifaceted program for the improvement of adolescent employability, academic achievement, and personal identity(SAGE Publications, 1990-04) Cross, Tracy; Darby, Bruce W.; D'Alonzo, Bruno J.There is a growing effort in this country to find effective ways to deal with the drop-out problem. Among those involved in this search are policy-makers, business persons, educators, psychologists and parents. One result of this effort was the passage of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) in 1982 and amended in 1986. In addition to the JPTA involvement in adult training and employment programs, the legislation has enabled summer programs to be established in some locations around the country for high school students who are considered to be "high-risk" in terms of their likelihood of dropping out of school. ItemLying probationers and parolees: The issue of polygraph surveillance(Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, 1996) Slate, Risdon N.; Anderson, Patrick R.Probationers and parolees do not always tell the truth, and the officers who supervise them assume this. How can they tell when someone is lying? One way is through use of the polygraph--commonly, but not quite accurately, referred to as the "lie detector." Authors Risdon N. Slate and Patrick R. Anderson discuss polygraph accuracy, polygraph surveillance of probationers, and state and federal court findings regarding polygraph surveillance. ItemThe federal witness protection program: Its evolution and continuing growing pains(aylor & Francis Group, 1997) Slate, Risdon N.The history of the Federal Witness Security Program, commonly called the Witness Protection Program, is recounted. The operations of the program since its inception in 1970 have grown beyond anyone's wildest speculations. ItemParticipative management and correctional personnel: A study of the perceived atmosphere for participation in correctional decision making and its impact on employee stress and thoughts about quitting(Elsevier Ltd, 1997) Slate, Risdon N.; Vogel, Ronald E.Participatory management has been identified in the empirical literature as a technique to alleviate job related stress in criminal justice organizations. Although many advantages have been noted, few criminal justice agencies have developed programs to capitalize on the benefits of employee participation in decision making. This article focuses on the perceptions of correctional officers regarding their participation in decision making and the relationship between organizational stress, physical stress, and thoughts about quitting the job. Four hundred eighty-six employees were surveyed from seven correctional institutions in the Southeast United States. A structural model, which explained 31 percent of the variation, showed that as employee participation increased, physical and occupational stress decreased. Thoughts about quitting were associated with higher levels of physical stress, occupational stress, and the perception of a negative atmosphere for participation. The results lend support for the use and development of participatory management programs in the field of corrections. ItemComputations of quandle cocycle invariants of knotted curves and surfaces(Cornell Tech, 1999) Carter, J. Scott; Jelsovsky, Daniel; Kamada, Seiichi; Saito, MasahicoState-sum invariants for knotted curves and surfaces using quandle cohomology were introduced by Laurel Langford and the authors in math.GT/9903135 In this paper we present methods to compute the invariants and sample computations. Computer calculations of cohomological dimensions for some quandles are presented. For classical knots, Burau representations together with Maple programs are used to evaluate the invariants for knot table. For knotted surfaces in 4-space, movie methods and surface braid theory are used. Relations between the invariants and symmetries of knots are discussed. ItemShifting homomorphisms in quandle cohomology and skeins of cocycle knot invariants(Cornell Tech, 2000) Carter, J. Scott; Jelsovsky, Daniel; Kamada, Seiichi; Saito, MasahicoHomomorphisms on quandle cohomology groups that raise the dimensions by one are studied in relation to the cocycle state-sum invariants of knots and knotted surfaces. Skein relations are also studied. Comment: 14 pages; 6 Figures. Minor corrections: The main application of one proposition remains true, but the proposition has been downgraded to a conjecture ItemProbation officer stress: Is there an organizational solution?(Administrative Office of the United States Courts, 2000-06) Slate, Risdon N.; Johnson, W. Wesley; Wells, Terry L.Reviews research on factors in probation officer stress and possible organizational remedies. Findings from stress studies include a direct correlation between occupational level and job satisfaction; significant causes of stress from unnecessary paperwork, lack of time to accomplish the job, financial concerns, uncertainty about retirement benefits, insufficient mileage reimbursement, and family matters; and a greater propensity for quitting among entry-level probation officers and among better educated and minority probation officers. Findings on possible organizational remedies include an emphasis on participatory management as a means of reducing probation officer stress and/or burnout. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) ItemOpening the Manager's Door: State Probation Officer Stress and Perceptions of Participation in Workplace Decision Making(Sage Publishing, 2003) Slate, Risdon N.; Wells, Terry L.; Johnson, W. WesleyStress can be costly not only to individuals but also to organizations. Participatory management has been recommended as a means for reducing probation officer stress. This article via self-report surveys of probation personnel in a southern state considers the relationship of a number of demographic variables with employee perceptions of participation in workplace decision making, job satisfaction, and organizational and physical stress levels. Construction of a structural model revealed that employee perceptions of participation in a workplace decision making was an important variable in relationship to job satisfaction and its influence on both reported organizational and physical symptoms of stress. The results lend further credence to the use and development of participatory management schemes within probation organization. . ItemQuandle cohomology and state-sum invariants of knotted curves and surfaces(American Mathematical Society, 2003) Carter, J. Scott; Jelsovsky, Daniel; Kamada, Seiichi; Langford, Laurel; Saito, MasahicoThe 2-twist spun trefoil is an example of a sphere that is knotted in 4-dimensional space. A proof is given in this paper that this sphere is distinct from the same sphere with its orientation reversed. Our proof is based on a state-sum invariant for knotted surfaces developed via a cohomology theory of racks and quandles (also known as distributive groupoids). A quandle is a set with a binary operation -- the axioms of which model the Reidemeister moves in classical knot theory. Colorings of diagrams of knotted curves and surfaces by quandle elements, together with cocycles of quandles, are used to define state-sum invariants for knotted circles in 3-space and knotted surfaces in 4-space. Cohomology groups of various quandles are computed herein and applied to the study of the state-sum invariants. Non-triviality of the invariants is proved for a variety of knots and links, and conversely, knot invariants are used to prove non-triviality of cohomology for a variety of quandles. ItemFrom the jailhouse to capitol hill: Impacting mental health court legislation and defining what constitutes a mental health court(Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, 2003) Slate, Risdon N.This article examines congressional testimony preceding the passage of legislation authorizing federal funds for mental health courts and makes the case for the importance of anecdotal evidence in the process. The magnitude of persons with mental illness in the criminal justice system is considered, as well as factors that have led to the criminalization of this population. The concept of therapeutic jurisprudence is discussed, and commonalities in the emergence of mental health courts and methods of supervision are examined. Areas of concern are addressed, and mental health courts are advocated as a commonsense approach to diverting persons with mental illness from the criminal justice system and ensuring linkages to treatment. ItemDoing Justice for Mental Illness and Federal Probation and Pretrial Services Officers as Mental Health Specialists(Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, 2003-12) Slate, Risdon N.; Roskes, Erik; Feldman, Richard; Baerga, MigdaliaMental health problems are notably common among correctional populations, including community corrections populations. The attthors analyze breakdowns of mental illness in these populations and the treatment in prison before focussing on the peculiar problems of supervising defendants and offenders suffering from mental illness. They emphasize the challenges and benefits of collaborations with therapeutic resources in the community. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] ItemTraining federal probation officers as mental health specialists(Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, 2004-09) Slate, Risdon N.; Feldman, Richard; Roskes, Erik; Baerga, MigdaliaThe rate of mental illness in the offending population is estimated at about three to four times that of the general population. Here, Slate et al suggest the establishment of a certified training model for mental health specialists in federal supervision, and describe the necessary components of such program. ItemGender Matters Differences in State Probation Officer Stress(Sage Publications, 2006) Wells, Terry L.; Colbert, Sharla S.; Slate, Risdon N.The causes of stress for criminal justice practitioners, including probation officers, can generally be categorized into four areas: internal to the organization, external to the organization, the job or task itself, or personal in nature. Historically, criminal justice agencies have been characterized as male-dominated organizations. However, the presence of females in the criminal justice arena is growing, as evidenced in this project. The purpose of this analysis is to examine female and male perceptions of stress among what has been a predominately male-occupied position, probation officers. Overall, the findings suggest that female probation officers exhibit greater signs of physical stress yet, remarkably, reflect lower levels of occupational stress in the study at hand. With the limitations of this study in mind, prospects for further research are delineated. ItemDrosophila klaroid encodes a SUN domain protein required for Klarsicht localization to the nuclear envelope and nuclear migration in the eye(Taylor & Francis, 2007-04) Kracklauer, Martin P.; Banks, Susan M. L.; Xie, Xuanhua; Wu, Yaning; Fischer, Janice A.KASH (Klarsicht/Anc-1/Syne homology) domain proteins are cytoskeleton-associated proteins localized uniquely to the outer nuclear membrane. Klarsicht is a KASH protein required for nuclear migration in differentiating cells of the Drosophila eye. The C-terminal KASH domain of Klarsicht resides in the perinuclear space, and the cytoplasmic moiety connects to the microtubule organizing center. In C. elegans and vertebrate cells, SUN (Sad1/UNC-84) domain proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and tether KASH proteins to the outer nuclear membrane. Is there a Drosophila SUN protein that performs a similar function, and if so, is it like Klarsicht, obviously essential for [...] ItemPolice Stress: A Structural Model(Springer US, 2007-11) Slate, Risdon N.; Johnson, W. Wesley; Colbert, Sharla S.A number of existing studies have identified various factors that contribute to stress among police officers. This analysis is unique among these insofar as it employs structural equation modeling to specify, in path model format, the influence of participation in workplace decision-making and other variables on employee stress levels. The findings of this analysis provide new as well as confirmatory statistical evidence regarding the mitigating and direct effects of certain variables on physical stress. This study poses important implications by lending itself to meaningful future comparative research across occupations such as corrections and probation / parole. ItemA qualitative organic analysis that exploits the senses of smell, touch, and sound(Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society, 2007-12) Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.This laboratory experiment utilizes the characteristic aromas of some functional groups to exploit the sense of smell as a discriminating tool in an organic qualitative analysis scheme. Students differentiate a variety of compounds by their aromas and based on their olfactory classification identify an unknown functional group. Students then perform chemical tests that rely on the senses of touch, smell, and sound to confirm the functional group present. The use of a light probe enables students to qualitatively analyze many visual changes as an auditory response. Students "hear" significant changes in color, solution viscosity, and the presence of a precipitate. Students group compounds by their functional group characteristic smells, decide on necessary confirmatory tests based on their own classification, and utilize effectively the senses of touch, sound, and smell to identify their unknowns. Student feedback strongly stated they enjoyed the experiment particularly discovering the characteristics of each functional group physically and chemically. Based on the write-ups and performance of the students in the laboratory, it is evident that this sensorial laboratory can add richness to traditional organic laboratories. ItemQuest for zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks: on pyrimidinecarboxylate bis-chelating bridging ligands(American Chemical Society, 2008) Sava, Dorina F.; Kravtsov, Victor Ch.; Nouar, Farid; Wojtas, Lukasz; Eubank, Jarrod F.; Eddaoudi, MohamedTwo novel porous zeolitelike metal−organic frameworks (ZMOFs) were constructed via the single metal ion-based molecular building block approach from rigid and directional tetrahedral building units and pyrimidinecarboxylate bridging ligands; their ion exchange and hydrogen sorption properties were evaluated.